今天上午,参观了1938年黄河花园口决堤处。

  花园口位于郑州市区北郊17公里处的黄河南岸。抗日战争开始后,侵华日军沿平汉、津浦两路南下。1938年5月19日,徐州失守,日军沿陇海路西犯,于6月初攻陷开封,接着跟踪西进,抵达距离郑州不足百里的地方。郑州是陇海、平汉铁路的交汇处,北扼黄河天险,郑州一失,不但阻断各个战区间的铁路交通,而且将会导致西安、武汉无险可守的严重局面。而此时在河南境内的国民党主力部队多为徐州战场撤下的疲兵,尚未得到休整,已无力再战。为了阻止日军侵犯中原,1938年6月9日,蒋介石采取“以水代兵”的办法,下令扒开花园口黄河大堤,黄河水汹涌而出,一泻千里。它在一定程度上实现了阻截日军西进南下的目的,日军第14、第16师团陷入困境,但同时也给豫、皖、苏的中国百姓带来了深重的灾难,淹没耕地1200余万亩,造成黄泛区,共计有1200万人受灾,390万人流离失所,89万人死亡,震惊全世界。

  花园口的决堤主要责任是由于国民政府国民革命军中的中央军的主要将领桂永清和黄杰不听调遣,贪生怕死,擅自逃跑,导致原来制定的兰封作战计划全盘崩溃。最后才出此下策。

  花园口决堤给日军造成重大伤亡,据日本防卫厅防卫研究所战史室编写的《中国事变陆军作战史》记载,洪水之后日军于6月17日以航空兵团全力援助困于河水的第十六师团方面的补给。用运输机、轻重轰炸机,在6月16至24日之间给两个师团投下补给粮秣、卫生材料不计其数。6月29日,日军在徐州举行联合追悼大会。仅第二军死于洪水人数便达到7452名之多。

  决堤后,由于形成黄泛区这一巨大地障,迫使敌人于平汉路以东停止前进,从而消除了唐、白河流域及汉水中游面临的威胁。并守住了军事重地郑州。

  战后蒋中正(字介石)调拨了大量资金修复黄河大堤,史称“黄河归故”,即恢复故道。

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  花园口
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  黄河公路大桥
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  扒口西界界碑
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  1938年扒口处
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  记事广场
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  记事广场上有两座东、西相对的高约3米、内径约1米的六面石碑。一为1947年国民党的“黄河花园口合龙纪念碑”,一为1997共产党的“黄河花园口掘堤堵口记事碑”,从不同的角度记录了同一段历史。

  西亭碑文(原旧亭为1947年中国国民政府所立)

  上有“中华民国总统”蒋中正(字介石)手书的“济国安澜”,代表“行政院”题写的“安澜有庆”,及“民国水利部长”薛笃弼写的“花园口合龙纪念碑”文和“复堵局局长”朱光彩撰写的“花园口工程纪实”。

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  1947年5月4日,时任“民国水利部部长”的薛笃弼在合龙纪念碑中写道:民国二十七年六月,河决于南岸郑县之花园口,维时日寇进窥中原,西趋宛洛,赖洪水泛滥,铁骑乃为之阻,然河南、安徽、江苏受其害者,盖四十余县,夏秋之间,百川激灌,浩荡滔天之祸不忍睹,考之历史,河决于兵争,历久之际,则河必改道,此次决于开封、中牟以西,澎湃奔腾,为害益烈。日寇降服之翌年三月一日兴工,上承主席之训示,外承友帮之供应。内有河南军民长官之通力合作,施工再挫,卒于三十六年三月十五日合龙。

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  1947年8月,时任“黄河堵复局长”的赵光彩在“花园口工程纪实”碑文中写道:倭寇侵我之翌年,河防工作停顿。六月,河决于郑县之花园口。旧槽断流,虽籍天堑以遏方张之日寇,而被淹面积两万九千方公里,灾民600余万。河水夺淮入运(河),并集于大江(长江)。倭寇败降,立饬黄河水利委员会筹办,决定用打桩建桥抛石平堵方法,三十五年三月开工时,(决)口门宽1460公尺,新河槽刷深11公尺。五月初,(桥头)两坝工程修筑完成,联合国善后救济总署(联总)负责人主张立即堵口,由联总塔德顾问督率外籍工程人员赶打桥桩。6月21日桥成,因中共反对抛石,又值伏汛早至,致东段桥桩冲毁180公尺,至9月底开始重新建桥,历经危险,始于12月11日将全桥架通,开始抛石,因坝身太重,河底沙松,发生塌陷,3月7日引河开挖,推抛柳石辊合龙。8日引河开放,水流畅顺,4月24日开始加高堤身,全工于7月20日修筑完成,历时16月,用款390亿,工320万。复因沿河政治军事示臻稳定,屡遭受意外波折,艰难险阻楮墨难罄。幸赖联总与行政院善后总署热忱供应。卒底于成。

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  两幅碑文之后,刻有参与修堵决口的“陆军司令”顾祝同、“河南省政府主席”刘茂恩、各工段组长以上长官,以及在堵口中著名的工夫等数百人的名字。

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  东亭碑文(东亭为1997年中华人民共和国河南省人民政府所立)

  上有河南省人民政府、水利部黄河水利委员会联合撰写的“黄河花园口掘堤堵口记事碑”,部分 碑文如下:1938年5月19日,徐州失守,日本军沿陇海铁路西犯,中国国民政府军事委员会6月1日策定:将豫东20万国军调到豫西山地,作战略转移,并掘黄河堤放水。6月4日,日军逼近开封,第一战区第20集团军53军一团奉命在中牟赵口掘黄河堤,但是因为此处水流太小,掘堤后使水流不畅,又因黄河流水北移,后准备改掘,53军又派军队沿河向西找新的掘口,6月6日夜半,该军新八师参谋熊光煜等六人在选定花园口,开始掘堤,并最终将此处掘开,大水随后分两路向东南方向漫冲,一路沿颍河入淮,一路沿贾鲁河东去,共淹农田84.4万公顷,灾民近400万,死亡89.3万人。至1947年堵口成功,黄河共泛滥8年零9个月。国民政府1946年3月1日开始堵口,联合国善后救济总署也参与进来,并开始与中国共产党谈判堵口事宜。3月3日,黄河水利委员会委员长兼堵复局局长赵守钰会晤军事裁调处执行部代表周恩来、张治中、马歇尔,并在开封达成堵口协议,当年3月开始在长1460米的掘口上打桩修桥,当时国民党军政要员白崇禧与刘峙亲临指挥,其间在堵口问题上几经转折。堵口被冲开多次,之后由陈诚、顾祝同等现场指挥检查,最终把掘口堵住。

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  本文照片为原创,谢绝转载。





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