晚上我谈妥了一个报酬约为1000元的电子商务PHP程序开发的活,除了我自学的网络技术外,所学专业----“国际贸易经济与贸易”的知识总算可以派上用场了。无论是公选课学过的《中华人民共和国合同法》还是国际商法专业课学过的《国际货物买卖合同法》,对我写程序都是很有帮助的。以前我做的基本上是纯粹的网络技术项目,那时候一直感叹自己所学的国贸专业都没什么实际用途,现在发现将自己掌握的网络技术与经贸知识合一,是一个不错的组合。

  一、1999年3月我国颁布了新的《合同法》法,其中,涉及电子商务合同的有三点:
  1、将传统的书面合同形式扩大到数据电文形式。第十一条规定:“书面形式是指合同书、信件以及数据电文(包括电报、电传、传真、电子数据交换和电子邮件)等可以有形地表现所载内容的形式。”也就是说,不管合同采用什么载体,只要可以有形地表现所载内容,即视为符合法律对“书面”的要求。这些规定,符合国际贸易委员会建议采用的“同等功能法”。

  2、确定电子商务合同的到达时间。《合同法》第十六条规定:“采用数据电文形式订立合同,收件人指定特定系统接收数据电文的,该数据电文进入该特定系统的时间,视为到达时间;未指定特定系统的,该数据电文进入收件人的任何系统的首次时间,视为到达时间。”
  3、确定电子商务合同的成立地点。《合同法》第三十四条规定:“采用数据电文形式订立合同的,收件人的主营业地为合同成立的地点;没有主营业地的,其经常居住地为合同成立的地点。”

  二、我在电子商务程序开发中需要考虑的合同中要约邀请、要约、承诺的问题:
  1、要约
  
要约是一方当事人向另一方当事人提出订立合同的条件。希望对方能完全接受此条件的意思表示。发出要约的一方称为要约人,受领要约的一方称为受要约人。
  ①要约的条件:a.要约的内容必须具体明确。所谓“具体”是指要约的内容必须具有足以使合同成立的主要条款。如果没有包含合同的主要条款,受要约人难以做出承诺,即使做出了承诺,也会因为双方的这种合意不具备合同的的主要条款而使合同不能成立。所谓“确定”,是指要约的内容必须明确,而不能含糊不清,否则无法承诺。b.要约必须具有订立合同的意图,表明一经受要约人承诺,要约人即受该意思表示的拘束。
  ②要约的效力。《合同法》第16条规定:“要约到达受要约人时生效。”自要约实际送达给特定的受要约人时,要约即发生法律效力,要约人不得在事先未声明的情况下撤回或变更要约,否则构成违反前合同义务,要承担缔约过失的损害赔偿责任。需明确一点,到达是指要约的意思表示额 观上传递到受要约人处即可,而不管受要约人主观上是否实际了解到要约的具体内容。例如,要约以电传方式传递,受要约人收到后因临时有事未来得及看其内容,要约也生效。
  ③要约的失效。要约发出后,有下列情形之一的,要约失效,要约人不再受原要约的拘束:a.要约的撤回。撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受要约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人。b.拒绝要约的通知到达要约人。受要约人以口头或书面的方式明确能知要约人不接受该要约。c.受要约人对要约的内容进行实质性变更。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法等的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。d.要约中规定有承诺期限的,承诺期限届满,受要约人未作出承诺。对口头要约,在极短的时间内不立即作出接受的意思表示,则表明要约的失效。e.要约的撤销。要约可以撤销,撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。但是,有下列情形之一的,要约不得撤销:A.要约人确定了承诺期限或者以其他形式明示要约不可撤销;B.受要约人有理由认为要约是不可撤销的,并已经为履行合同作了准备工作。
  ④要约撤回与要约撤销的区别。二者的区别仅在于时间的不同,要约的撤回是在要约生效之前为之,即撤回要约的通知应当在要约到达受约人之前或者与要约同时到达受要约人;而要约的撤销是在要约生效之后承诺作邮之前而为之,即撤销要约的通知应当在受要约人发出承诺通知之前到达受要约人。
  ⑤要约与要约邀请的区别。a.要约邀请是指一方邀请对方向自己发出要约,而要约是一方向他方发出订立合同的意思表示;b.要约缴 不是一种意思表示,而是一种事实行为。要约是希望他人和自己订立合同的意思表示,是法律行为;c.要约邀请只是引诱他人向自己发出要约,在发出邀请要约邀请人撤回其中邀请,只要未给善意相对人造成信赖利益的损失,邀请人并不承担法律责任,以下四个法律文件为要约请:寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书。

  2、承诺
  承诺是指受要约人同意要约的意思表示。承诺应当以通知的方式作出,但根据交易习惯或者要约表明可以通过行为作出承诺的除外。
  ①承诺的条件:a.承诺的主体只能是受要约人。这意味着,非受要约人作出的承诺的意民表示并非承诺,而是向要约人发出的要约。b.承诺的内容是同意要约,它强调承诺的内容与要约的内容应当一致。承诺实质性变更要约的,为新要约。我国合同法对承诺与要约内容的一致性原则作了灵活处理,允许承诺作出大量实质性变更。c.承诺应当在要约确定的期限内到达要约人。要约没有确定承诺期限,承诺应当按照下列规定到达:要约以对话方式作出的,应当及时作出承诺,但当事人另有约定的除外;要约以对话方式作出的,承诺应当在合理期限内到达。
  ②承诺迟到的效力。a.因承诺自身原因迟到的,原则上承诺无效,为新要约。《合同法》第28条规定:“受要约人超过承诺期限发出承诺,除要约人及地通知受要约人该承诺有效的以外,为新要约。”b.因非由于承诺人自身原因迟到的,原则上承诺有效。《合同法》29条规定:“受要约人在承诺期限内发出承诺,按照通常情形能够及时到达要约人,但因其他原因承诺到达要约人时超过承诺期限的,除要约人及时通知受要约人因承诺超过期限不接受该承诺的以外,该承诺有铲。”
  ③承诺的效力。承诺通知到达要约人时生效。承诺不需要通知的,根据将近易习惯或者要约的要求作出承诺的行为时生效。承诺的生效亦采取到达主义,与要约相同。承诺生效时合同成立,承诺生效的地点为合同成立的地点。
  ④承诺的失效。有下列情形之一的,受要约人接受要约所做的答复不发生法律效力:a.承诺撤回。承诺人可以发出承诺后又撤回承诺,但撤回承诺的通知应当在承诺通知到达要约人之前或者与承诺通知同时到达要约人。b.承诺逾期,要约方没有认可其为承诺。

  3、要约邀请
  要约邀请,是希望他人向自己发出要约的意思表示,是当事人订立合同的预备行为,行为人在法律上无须承担责任。要约邀请与要约区别在于:①要约是当事人自己主动愿意订立合同的意思表示,以订立合同为直接目的;要约邀请则是当事人表示某种意思的真实行为,是希望对方向自己提出订立合同的意思表示。②要约必须包含了合同的主要内容,而且要约人有愿意受到要约拘束的意愿;要约邀请则不含有当事人表示愿意接受拘束的意思。③要约大多数是针对特定的相对人的,故要约往往采取对话方式和信函方式;而要约邀请一般针对不特定的多数人,故往往以电视、报刊等媒介为传递手段。根据新《合同法》规定,寄送的价目表、拍卖公告、招标公告、招股说明书、商业广告为要约邀请。其中,商业广告的内容若符合要约的规定,视为要约。

  4、是要约?还是要约邀请?
  法律条文明确将一般商业广告作为要约邀请,这便为许多并不准备格守信用的要约人提供可乘之机。他们往往以要约邀请的形式如广告等发出具有明确具体内容的要约,以便在对方承诺时可进可退,不像要约那样,一旦对方承诺,自己便要受要约内容的约束。

  5、是承诺?还是新要约?
  ①《合同法》中明确规定受要约人对要约的内容作出实质性变更的,为新要约。有关合同标的、数量、质量、价款或报酬、履行期限、履行地点和方式、违约责任和解决争议方法的变更,是对要约内容的实质性变更。②承诺对要约的内容作出非实质性变更的,除要约人及时反对外该承诺仍然有效。


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