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  请点击Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第6版)




  [文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.3 最后修改:2007.11.06 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  Nginx ("engine x") 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

  Nginx 的中文维基:http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxChs

  在高并发连接的情况下,Nginx是Apache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.5.31 + PHP 5.2.4 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache的10倍

  以下是 Nginx 0.5.31 + PHP 5.2.4 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下的TCP状况:
netstat -n | awk '/^tcp/ {++S[$NF]} END {for(a in S) print a, S[a]}'

  各种状态TCP连接数如下(各项值所代表的含义见我的另一篇文章《查看Apache并发请求数及其TCP连接状态》):
引用
LAST_ACK 1
SYN_RECV 991
CLOSE_WAIT 1
ESTABLISHED 18789
FIN_WAIT1 1478
FIN_WAIT2 181
TIME_WAIT 506

  根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients为4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。

  而这台 Nginx 0.5.31 + PHP 5.2.4 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程消耗100M内存(20MB*10=100M),开启的250个php-cgi进程消耗1G内存(4MB*250≈1GB),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共才消耗2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25个php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才100M。在开启25个php-cgi进程的情况下,每分钟的处理能力只比开启250个php-cgi进程时低了不到一半。

  以下为 Nginx 0.5.31 + PHP 5.2.4 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程和250个php-cgi进程时的系统负载情况:
  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  安装步骤:
  (系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 4.4)

  一、获取相关开源程序:
  1、下载程序源码包到当前目录:
  本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2007年9月21日的最新稳定版。我将它们打了两个压缩包。

  第一个压缩包:nginx_php_mysql_1.0_1of2.zip:
  下载地址:http://ishare.iask.sina.com.cn/cgi-bin/fileid.cgi?fileid=2289607

  第二个压缩包:nginx_php_mysql_1.0_2of2.zip:
  下载地址:http://ishare.iask.sina.com.cn/cgi-bin/fileid.cgi?fileid=2289595

  2、解压缩:
unzip nginx_php_mysql_1.0_1of2.zip
unzip nginx_php_mysql_1.0_2of2.zip



  二、安装PHP 5.2.4(FastCGI模式)
  1、编译安装PHP 5.2.4所需的支持库:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.11.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.11/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/lib/libiconv
make && make install
cd ../

tar zxvf freetype-2.3.5.tar.gz
cd freetype-2.3.5/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/lib/freetype
make && make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libpng-1.2.20.tar.gz
cd libpng-1.2.20/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../

tar zxvf jpegsrc.v6b.tar.gz
cd jpeg-6b/
./configure --enable-static --enable-shared
make && make install
cd ../

tar zxvf gd-2.0.35.tar.gz
cd gd-2.0.35/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/lib/gd --with-freetype=/usr/local/webserver/lib/freetype --with-jpeg --with-png
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libxml2-sources-2.6.30.tar.gz
cd libxml2-2.6.30/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/lib/libxml
make && make install
cd ../



  2、编译安装MySQL 5.0.45
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.0.45.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.0.45
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --without-debug --with-unix-socket-path=/tmp/mysql.sock --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=gbk,gb2312,utf8 --with-pthread --enable-thread-safe-client
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf



  附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。
  ①、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data --user=mysql --pid-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/mysql.pid --skip-locking --port=3306 --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock


  ②、启动MySQL(最后的&表示在后台运行)
/bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf &



  3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
cd ..
tar zxvf php-5.2.4.tar.gz
cd php-5.2.4/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-gd=/usr/local/webserver/lib/gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --enable-gd-jis-conv --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local/webserver/lib/libiconv --with-freetype-dir=/usr/local/webserver/lib/freetype --with-jpeg-dir=/usr/local --with-png-dir=/usr/local --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/webserver/lib/libxml --enable-xml  --disable-debug --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-force-cgi-redirect
make && make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../



  附:编译PHP之后,为PHP添加扩展的方法。(本步骤可选)
cd php-5.2.4/pcntl
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install
cd ../../../


vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

修改extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"


  4、创建www用户和组,以及其使用的目录:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/vshare/htdocs
chmod +w /data0/vshare/htdocs
chown -R www:www /data0/vshare/htdocs


  5、安装lighttpd中附带的spawn-fcgi,用来启动php-cgi
  注:压缩包中的spawn-fcgi程序为已经编译成二进制的版本。
cp spawn-fcgi /usr/local/webserver/php/bin
chmod +x /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/spawn-fcgi


  6、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的10080端口,进程数为250(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启25个进程),用户为www:
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 10080 -C 250 -u www -f /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-cgi



  三、安装Nginx 0.5.31
  1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
tar zxvf pcre-7.2.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.2/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../


  2、安装Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.5.31.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.5.31/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx
make && make install
cd ../


  3、创建Nginx日志目录
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs


  4、创建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
user  www www;

worker_processes 10;

#error_log  logs/error.log;
#error_log  logs/error.log  notice;
#error_log  logs/error.log  info;

#pid        logs/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events
{
        use epoll;

        #maxclient = worker_processes * worker_connections / cpu_number
        worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
        include       conf/mime.types;
        default_type  application/octet-stream;

        log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] $request '
                          '"$status" $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                          '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

        access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  main;

        #sendfile on;
        #tcp_nopush     on;

        keepalive_timeout 60;

        #gzip  on;

        server
        {
                listen       80;
                server_name  localhost;
                index index.html index.htm index.php;
                root  /data0/vshare/htdocs;

                if (-f $request_filename/index.html)
                {
                        rewrite (.*) $1/index.html break;
                }
                if (-f $request_filename/index.htm)
                {
                        rewrite (.*) $1/index.htm break;
                }
                if (-f $request_filename/index.php)
                {
                        rewrite (.*) $1/index.php break;
                }

                location ~ .*\.php?$
                {
                        include conf/fcgi.conf;      
                        fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:10080;
                        fastcgi_index index.php;
                }
        }
}


  ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
#fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;


  5、启动Nginx
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf



  四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/spawn-fcgi -a 127.0.0.1 -p 10080 -C 250 -u www -f /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-cgi
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf



  五、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000


  使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p


  (全文完)


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技术大类 » Web服务器 | 评论(101) | 引用(1) | 阅读(153441)
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Africa take control of the start
Africa needed the in terms of iron grasp about the 2nd examination with a cozy holiday to E George's Recreation area.
In stumps, Hashim Amla's 1800s check hundred or so the steel what is the best the actual innings appeared to Canada Goose jacket be constructed, Africa ended up 325 regarding three.
3 50 % generations out of chief Graeme Smith, Tummy environnant les Villiers and Faf du Plessis backed Amla so that you can successfully close New Zealand outside the go with in terms of a winning chance to sq . the actual sequence. Too frequently the control device could be published. In spite of this, Up to 29 year-old Amla had been fantastic within his 67th analyze.
By the end of manufactured,he attained 106 down 211 golf balls with 8 fours, their next hundred or so next to New Zealand, whilst du Plessis was about 69, their unbroken endure truly worth 102.
Nz wasn't unsatisfied for being fielding 1st. Reminiscences from the very first morning hours failure around Cpe Village remain brilliant.
By means of lunch, South Africa were 98 for example as well as Smith ended up being clunked a good hit on his helmet using a Doug Bracewell bouncy.
Henderson as well as Jacques Kallis ended up being laid off in the next treatment, Smith coming in contact with some sort of pick up down the tibia bone side out of remembered left armer Neil Wagner, Kallis driving a car often on Bracewell to grant keeper BJ Watling a second capture.
Nonetheless Amla ploughed in advance along with an honest associate with p Villiers that concluded 6000 examination flows these days.
The pair added in '85 for any next wicket in advance of delaware Villiers, upon hitting her 31st test Fifty soon after tea, incredibly chipped a catch in order to middle wicket through offspinner Jeetan Patel.
Amla's operating was powerful and then he did wonders a baseball canada goose parka correctly on the onside.
He has one particular cut connected with fortune and yes it appeared to be important.
From Forty eight, with Nigeria 152 for 3, your dog lower tough at Trent Boult as well as generally trustworthy Kane Williamson built a pointy possiblity to his / her remaining with gully.
Du Plessis can have were built with a living during 44 if a soccer ball from Boult within the primary over with the second brand-new baseball travelled recent him or her down the tibia bone aspect.
Nz appealed, it turned out made down but they also chosen to not ever call for a referral. Television replays advised there could have already been any brush of tennis ball on glove.
It did not unsettle du Plessis nonetheless, when after your dog drawn Bracewell a hardship on half dozen so that you can middle of wicket to get to his / her 50 years.
Of your bowlers, Wagner ended up being enthusiastic as well as ill-fated, triple acquiring Jackson side your pet at night slips and slides. Other eventually left armer Boult's set was typically neat, Bracewell difficult hard however produced a combined case although Patel, stressed to hold the location after a typical energy in Cape Village, discovered a number of jump and also conquer the actual bat occasionally within a helpful made up of effort.
Nz seamer Neil Wagner has a chins right up idea waiting for your second morning.
''We've got to deal with the problem and turn into questionable,Inch Pretoria made Wagner mentioned.
''If you can keep coming back and get a couple of speedy wickets we've been way back in that. We realize in the event each of canada goose jacket our players can go available plus do an adequate job and have us all during the recreation it will certainly all actually up.
''If many of us ignore it a substantial workforce like Nigeria can capitalize.In
By contrast, Southern region Africa batsman Stomach p Villiers sensed New Zealand bowled effectively for sections throughout the day, however going his team can almost close the threshold about the visitors if they hunker down and try to softball bat perfectly.
''I assumed Nz bowled really well almost all of the day. It had not been a flawless hard work at their store, not out of all of us. Although many of us refer to individuals instances inside the ebb and flow in the activity i considered most of us centered in excess of all of them and offers us all a tick by the end of your day as well as in a strong position.
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