[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(2538) | 引用(0) | 阅读(283432)
MADAN
2018-10-6 13:17
I think this is one of the best blog for mebecause it really is helpful for me. Thanksfor sharing this valuable information forfree.web development company in patna
office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-6 19:01
www.office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-7 02:40
我在你的后续提交中展望未来,我会尽力抓住它! 你真的很容易让它与你的演示文稿一起显得很容易,但我发现这件事真的是我认为我可能无法理解的一件事。 对我来说,这种感觉太复杂了。
www.office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-7 03:21
I am having a look ahead in your subsequent submit, I will try to get the cling of it! You really make it appear really easy together with your presentation however I in finding this matter to be really one thing which I feel I might by no means understand. It kind of feels too complicated and very vast for me.www.office.com/setup   www.office.com/setup
Jacke Homepage
2018-10-7 10:10
Lovely post. coolcoolcool
www.office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-9 01:05
Hi, I read your post and found it quite interesting. The post you shared is very unique and informative. Thanks for sharing such a useful post. Visit: office.com/setup
Dane Porter Email Homepage
2018-10-9 04:39
Thank you so much for sharing these amazing tips. I must say you are an incredible writer, I love the way that you describe the things. Please keep sharing.office.com/setup
Dussehra Images Email Homepage
2018-10-9 15:56
- Every year, the festival of Dussehra is celebrated with great enthusiasm and zeal. People across the country take part in the occasion in their unique style. It is the day when ten-headed Ravana was killed by Lord Rama. Vijayadashami is an auspicious festival in Hinduism and celebrates the triumph of good over evil. Every locality of the country has its own uniqueness in the celebrations. Dussehra Greetings Dussehra Quotes
office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-9 19:16
After entering product key on www.office.com/setup facing problem, call our experts to help in office setuphttp://offiice-offiice.com
garmin.com/express Email Homepage
2018-10-9 19:33
garmin.com/expressoffice.com/setupMcAfee.com/ActivateNorton.com/setupNorton.com/setupoffice.com/setup
accounting project help Email Homepage
2018-10-10 17:24
If you do not want to be the sufferer, then why not taking an online Accounting project help Australia? Several students seek Accounting assignment help to score winning grades, and that is why we have emerged to offer you what you deserve.https://myassignmenthelp.com/accounting_assignment_help.html
webroot  safe Email Homepage
2018-10-11 12:30
It is very easy to install and use Webroot.com/safe or www.webroot.com/safe by following a few easy steps.In order to stop virus and worm to infect your device using Webroot, run setup and install it. You can easily install and upgrade Webroot SecureAnywhere AntiVirus products.http://webroot-webrootsafe.com
mcafee.com/activate Email Homepage
2018-10-11 12:31
McAfee activate is one of the best eminent organizations that have been working for offering the best antivirus items to its clients so they may remain associated with the advanced world by keeping away from the dangers related with itTo get more points of interest of our administrations simply call us at: (Toll Free) USA: 844-560-5500http://mcafee-mcafeeactivate.com
msofficesetuporg Email Homepage
2018-10-11 14:29
www.office.com/setup Learn, how to download and setup Microsoft office software For Windows and Mac OS PC/Laptopwww.office.com/setup
office.com/setup Email Homepage
2018-10-11 16:53
Office 365 gives flexibility to the user with cloud driven features, and provides all the familiar apps that you depend on for your business such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint, One Note, Publisher, Access, and Outlook. visit office.com/setup for Download, Installation and Activation Microsoft Office. Microsoft Office 2019 is the latest version of the office productivity suite and will be released in the second half of 2018. http://officeofficecom.com/
Accounting assignment help Homepage
2018-10-11 17:33
Students Assignment Help provides the accounting assignment help services outstandingly to the college or university students. Our online assignment writers are well-qualified and have gained their degree from the top universities around the world. You can hire our online assignment writers at: info@studentsassignmenthelp.com
james1995 Email
2018-10-12 23:21
norton.com/setup -to protect all your Windows, Mac & Android devices. Get Norton Setup and easily run to install Norton Anti Virus. Visit website:- norton.com/setupVisit website:- office.com/setupVisit website:- mcafee.com/activate
smith655 Email Homepage
2018-10-15 22:12
I am working in I.T staff and I like to read books..norton.com/setupoffice.com/setupmcafee.com/activate
分页: 11/127 第一页 上页 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]