[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(2538) | 引用(0) | 阅读(283409)
adgroups Email Homepage
2020-1-16 18:34
Website Designing Company In Delhi refers to process of planning, building and conceptualizing a collection of electronic files that determine the layout, colors, text styles, structure, graphics, images, and use of interactive features that deliver pages to your website visitors and Web development is a widely used term which stands for developing a website for Internet ( World Wide Web) and Intranet ( a private network), it includes work from developing a single page of plain text to the most sophisticated internet applications apart from these works web development also includes work like web engineering, seo company in delhi and web content development.In essence, Website Designing Company In Delhi refers to both the aesthetic portion of the website and its usability. Website Designing Company In Delhi uses various software such as Adobe Photoshop or adobe illustration to make website layout and its visual contents. A large Website Designing Company In Delhi company can consist of 50 to 100 web developers for the development of the website. Still, a small company can maintain its Website Designing Company In Delhi and development work with the help of a single web developer or with the help of few those persons who know about web developing software such as Adobe Dreamweaver, Blue Griffon, Microsoft Visual Studios.In today’s time, every organization knows that the best best way to advertise or sell their products is through online websites. Hence the Commercialization of the web is increasing; it resulted in the growth of the website designing company in delhi industry. Web development has impacted personal networking and marketing. to communicate or engage with the public in a more interactive and personal way.Here are many companies that provide web services to their clients. Still, Digital is one of the best company which comes in the list of top ppc company in delhi and development companies in Delhi. It provides which exceptional range of web services to their clients from simple corporate to complex database sites. I have designed more than 100 websites in India and overseas, which proves that Digital is the best web development company.
weblieu Email Homepage
2020-1-16 19:05
Thank you for sharing this valuable information I got the most useful information for my researchlogo designers in DelhiPSD to HTML Conversion
weblieu Email Homepage
2020-1-16 19:15
I read out your blog and I got a lot of valuable information. Visit digital marketing bloggraphic designing company in Delhibest web design company
Jones WIlson Email Homepage
2020-1-17 03:56
The article has truly beat my slant. I am going to bookmark your site and keep up checking for flashing new information.Regards,www.office.com/setupoffice.com/setupwww.office.com/setup
Jones WIlson Email Homepage
2020-1-17 03:57
I found so many interesting stuff in your blog especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your articles, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! keep up the good work…Regards,www.norton.com/setupwww.office.com/setupwww.office.com/setup
tekrysbyuis Email Homepage
2020-1-17 12:24
Tadacip 20 used to treat male erectile dysfunction, Buy Tadacip 20 online at 100% trusted pharmacy store with apply coupon code & grab up to 50% offhttps://tabletvilla.com/product/tadacip-20-mg/
Courses After 12th Email Homepage
2020-1-17 17:44
Awesome blog! Lovely Blog Structure and Nice Content, Dear Author Thanks for Sharing the Useful and Informative Information. Now, I’m hoping to start my own blog soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a free platform like WordPress or goo for a paid option? I Like Blogging, If you want to read my article's then please check one of them - Courses After 12thhttps://www.exposework.com/job-oriented-courses-after-12th/
RHEA LED LINEAR Email Homepage
2020-1-17 19:04
Loved this article, it was very interesting.Your blog provided us a piece of good information throughout your good content. RHEA LED Linear develops and OEM manufactures high-quality LED Lights and is committed to designing role-based applications that address the needs of our end users across all over the world.RHEA LED LINEAR
HURRAY-IELTS ONLINE TRAINING IN BANGALORE Email Homepage
2020-1-17 19:06
The points in the article are very clear.It is a wonderful article, enjoyed reading it.Hurray’s IELTS online training is aimed at bringing comfort to aspiring test-takers who might like to avoid the hassles of commuting and look to taking their own space in learning.Hurray-IELTS ONLINE TRAINING IN BANGALORE
Norton Email Homepage
2020-1-17 19:53
The Norton Setup at Nortonsetup is a process where reach you enter the Norton Setup Key at www.norton.com/setup  to trigger & install Norton product. One can get your hands on Norton from retail include or online.http://us-nortonnorton.com
genericonline Email Homepage
2020-1-17 19:57
CENFORCE 25 MG online at the lowest price in the USA to cure erectile dysfunction in men at 100% trusted pharmacy online store. Check Deal!!!!https://www.genericday.com/cenforce-25-mg.html
genericonline Email Homepage
2020-1-17 19:58
FILDENA 50 MG Worried about erectile dysfunction fulfill your desire to buy Fildena 50 mg.  check out reviews, side effects or more offershttps://www.genericday.com/fildena-50-mg.html
my kaspersky Email Homepage
2020-1-18 15:22
Office.com/setup Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:36
Office.com/setup is a verifiable suite of different participation based organizations and applications.
Webroot.com/safe Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:36
Webroot.com/safe is a cloud-based antivirus programming. This antivirus programming offers complete security of your gadget from malware and infections. It secures you during web surfing sessions by blocking destructive destinations.
Rand mcnally gps update Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:37
Rand McNally is an industry head in creative GPS area innovation. It gives a broad scope of vanguard and brilliant items that flawlessly incorporate best in class GPS innovation.
Garmin com express registration Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:37
Garmin Express is a device that encourages you to oversee and refresh your Garmin gadgets. You are required to keep your gadget refreshed with the most recent programming and maps. This will help you in improving and increasingly precise data. Garmin Express application is best for refreshing your gadget as it sends the notice each time the update is accessible. For utilizing a definitive highlights of Garmin Express, you should visit "garmin.com/express".
Garmin.com/express Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:37
Garmin.com/express is an application that helps the clients in overseeing and refreshing their Garmin Gadgets from their computers.
seo khazana Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:38
seo khazana give a total rundown of Catalog Accommodation Rundown, Social Bookmarking Rundown, Article Accommodation Rundown, PDF & PPT Accommodation List,Onpage website optimization ,off page seo,USAClassified,VideoSubmission,WEB 2.0,Websites Rundown.
Trend Micro Login Email Homepage
2020-1-18 18:39
Trend Micro is cloud-based antivirus software that defends your system against viruses and other malware. Also, this antivirus software safeguards against email scams. It has advanced security technology that keeps you secure when shopping or banking online.
分页: 112/127 第一页 上页 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]