[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(6223) | 引用(0) | 阅读(491315)
Minachan Email
2022-5-14 21:40
https://hentaihaven.mobi"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.mobi/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.one/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.plus/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.blog/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.blog"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.one"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.plus"" target="_blank">Hentaihaven
Minachan Email
2022-5-14 21:42
https://hentaihaven.mobi"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.mobi/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.one/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.plus/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.blog/"" target="_blank">Hentai Havenhttps://hentaihaven.blog"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.one"" target="_blank">Hentaihavenhttps://hentaihaven.plus"" target="_blank">Hentaihaven
Minachan Email
2022-5-14 21:43
https://hanime.us/"" target="_blank">hanimehttps://hanime.us/"" target="_blank">Hanime TVhttps://nhentai.pro/"" target="_blank">nhentaihttps://nhentai.plus"" target="_blank">nhentaihttps://nhentai.club"" target="_blank">nhentaihttps://nhentai.blog"" target="_blank">nhentaihttps://hentaihaven.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hentaihaven.mobi"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hentaihaven.one/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hentaihaven.blog/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hanime.us/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://nhentai.pro/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hentai.fit"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://e-hentai.pro"" target="_blank">ehentaihttps://familyguyporn.us/"" target="_blank">Family Guy Pornhttps://milftoon.us/"" target="_blank">Milftoonshttps://multporn.us/"" target="_blank">Multpornhttps://pokemonporn.us/"" target="_blank">Pokemonpornhttps://pokemonporn.us/"" target="_blank">Pokemon Pornhttps://animeporn.us/"" target="_blank">Anime Pornhttps://simpsonsporn.us/"" target="_blank">Simpsonspornhttps://simpsonsporn.us/"" target="_blank">Simpsons Pornhttps://familyguyporn.us/"" target="_blank">Familyguypornhttps://kisshentai.us/"" target="_blank">Kisshentaihttps://milftoon.us/"" target="_blank">Milftoonhttps://pokemonporn.us/"" target="_blank">Pokemon Pornhttps://porncomics.co/"" target="_blank">Porncomicshttps://8muses.us/"" target="_blank">8museshttps://porncomics.co/"" target="_blank">Porncomicshttps://animeporn.us/"" target="_blank">Anime Pornhttps://comicsporns.us/"" target="_blank">Comicspornshttps://cartoonsex.pro/"" target="_blank">Cartoonsexhttps://sexcomics.us/"" target="_blank">Sexcomicshttps://sexcomics.us/"" target="_blank">Sex Comicshttps://cartoonporncomics.us/"" target="_blank">Cartoon Porn Comicshttps://cartoonporn.tube/"" target="_blank">Cartoon Pornhttps://cartoonporn.tube/"" target="_blank">Cartoonpornhttps://comicsporns.us/"" target="_blank">Comics Pornshttps://cartoonsex.pro/"" target="_blank">Cartoon Sexhttps://sexcomics.us/"" target="_blank">Sex Comicshttps://cartoonporncomics.us/"" target="_blank">Cartoonporncomicshttps://hentaigasm.us/"" target="_blank">Hentaigasmhttps://myhentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">my hentai comicshttps://myhentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">Myhentaicomicshttps://tsumino.us/"" target="_blank">tsumino
Minachan Email
2022-5-14 21:44
https://myhentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">my hentai comicshttps://myhentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">Myhentaicomicshttps://tsumino.us/"" target="_blank">tsuminohttps://tsumino.us/"" target="_blank">Tsuminohttps://myhentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">Myhentaicomicshttps://cartoonporn.tube/"" target="_blank">Cartoon Pornhttps://3dporn.me/"" target="_blank">3D Pornhttps://3dporn.me/"" target="_blank">3dpornhttps://3dporn.me/"" target="_blank">3D Hentaihttps://shadbase.pro/"" target="_blank">Shadbasehttps://ehentai.pro/"" target="_blank">ehentaihttps://doujins.pro/"" target="_blank">doujinshttps://doujins.pro/"" target="_blank">Doujins
Minachan Email
2022-5-14 21:47
https://doujinmoe.pro/"" target="_blank">DoujinMoehttps://doujinmoe.pro/"" target="_blank">Doujin Moehttps://hentaimama.us/"" target="_blank">Hentaimamahttps://hentai2read.us/"" target="_blank">Hentai2readhttps://hentaistream.us/"" target="_blank">Hentai Streamhttps://porncomix.us/"" target="_blank">Porncomixhttps://Hentai.works"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://kisshentaitv.com/"" target="_blank">kisshentaitvhttps://kisshentaitv.com/"" target="_blank">Hentaihttps://hentaimanga.us/"" target="_blank">Hentai Mangahttps://hentaicomics.us/"" target="_blank">Hentai Comicshttps://hentaitv.us/"" target="_blank">Hentai TVhttps://animesex.co/"" target="_blank">Anime Sexhttps://hentaiporn.red/"" target="_blank">Hentai Pornhttps://animehentai.pro/"" target="_blank">Anime Hentaihttps://doujin.pro/"" target="_blank">Doujin
Hentai Tube Email Homepage
2022-5-14 21:52
hentai uncensoredhentai haven visita y disfruta de lo mejor para ti
ััััrrrr Email
2022-5-16 10:09
ลองเล่นสล็อต  สล็อต ที่น่าเชื่อถือ เว็บสล็อตค่ายใหญ่ที่รวบรวมเกม
rrrr
2022-5-16 10:10
megagame เข้าสู่ระบบ คว้ารางวัลการเดิมพันสล็อตออนไลน์ เสี่ยงโชคได้มากที่สุด
ffff
2022-5-16 10:10
บาคาร่า demoอัตราการชนะให้เต็มไม่มีลด ฝากแรกไม่มีขั้นต่ำ 1 บาทก็เล่นได้
fff Email
2022-5-16 10:11
22megagame ทดลองเล่นเล่นฟรีก่อนการเดิมพันจริง มีโบนัสและเครดิตฟรี
jordan Email Homepage
2022-5-16 13:43
<a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamask-log-in/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Log In</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamasklog-in/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Log In</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamask-wallet/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Wallet</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamaskextension/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Extension</a>
jordan Email Homepage
2022-5-16 13:43
<a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamask-log-in/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Log In</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamasklog-in/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Log In</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamask-wallet/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Wallet</a><a href="https://sites.google.com/metamskloginx.com/metamaskextension/home" rel="dofollow">MetaMask Extension</a>
Contestshub Email Homepage
2022-5-16 15:00
Check this page often to enter for your chance to win great contests from FOX 5 and fox5atlanta/contest.
john Email
2022-5-17 13:06
I hope you will publish again such type of post. Metamask Extension | Metamask Log in
Contestshub Email Homepage
2022-5-17 14:49
Check this page often to enter for your chance to win great contests from FOX 5 and fox5atlanta/contest.
바카라검증사이트 Email
2022-5-18 14:20
It seems like I've never seen an article of a kind like . It literally means the best thorn. It seems to be a fantastic article. It is the best among articles related to 바카라검증사이트  .  seems very easy, but it's a difficult kind of article, and it's perfect.
mshahid Email
2022-5-18 19:56
You made such an interesting piece to read, giving every subject enlightenment for us to gain knowledge. Thanks for sharing the such information with us to read this...  link indexing service
바카라사이트
2022-5-19 12:47
Hello. I'm subscribed to your posts. You inspire me a lot. 바카라사이트 I am so grateful.
分页: 300/312 第一页 上页 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]