[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(6223) | 引用(0) | 阅读(491316)
malwarebytesnew Email Homepage
2022-6-23 20:19
sadas Email Homepage
2022-6-24 01:07
MetaMask Login is a crypto exchange that provides a safe and secure platform for users to trade, and invest their assets. It also allows the users to access their ETH via browser extension and mobile application. It also offers the users to store and manage account keys, broadcast transactions, and send and receive Ethereum-based cryptocurrencies around the world. https://metamsk-loginusa.splashthat.com/https://geminiloginus-a.splashthat.com/https://phantomwallet-us.mobirisesite.com...
룰렛사이트 Email
2022-6-24 11:43
My curiosity was solved by looking at your writing. Your writing was helpful to me.   I want to help you too.룰렛사이트
robertjack9253 Email Homepage
2022-6-24 14:38
Cryptocurrency exchange Development Company |https://shamlatech.com/cryptocurrency-exchange-development/Rarible Clone Script Demohttps://shamlatech.com/rarible-like-platform/
Martin
2022-6-24 17:08
Your Uphold login accounts are considered the safest online location to hold Bitcoin, trade among the crypto variants, several precious metals and tons of different local currencies so, users can use the online platform without being worried at all.https://upholdlogi-us.mobirisesite.com/https://gemini-logon.mobirisesite.com/https://krakenlogini.mobirisesite.com/https...
derrtr Email Homepage
2022-6-25 15:04
Typically I never remark on online journals yet your article is persuading to the point that I never stop myself to say something regarding it. You're working admirably Man,Keep it up. coinbase exchange | coincheck
derrtr Email Homepage
2022-6-25 15:04
Typically I never remark on online journals yet your article is persuading to the point that I never stop myself to say something regarding it. You're working admirably Man,Keep it up.https://sites.google.com/cryptowalletts.com/coinbase-exchange/homehttps://sites.google.com/ewalletsconnects.com/coinchec...
바카라게임사이트 Email Homepage
2022-6-25 15:22
As I am looking at your writing, I regret being unable to do outdoor activities due to Corona 19, and I miss my old daily life.  If you also miss the daily life of those days, would you please visit my site once? My site is a site where I post about photos and daily life when I was free. 바카라게임사이트
Joseph Email
2022-6-25 19:30
MetaMask Wallet login does not require users to sign-up or register for an account. All it requires is getting their personal crypto space set up with an exclusive hard-to-predict and easy-to-recall password and seed phrase for an added layer of security.https://uphuldlogin9.mystrikingly.com/https://login-gemini-me.mystrikingly.com/https://krikenilogin.mystrikingly.com/htt...
valemane Email Homepage
2022-6-26 01:14
I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you’re just too magnificent hentai porn
maria Email Homepage
2022-6-27 12:26
The Coinbase Pro Login enables the users to trade a wide range of cryptocurrencies in a safe and secured environment. In the above article, we have discussed all the possibilities and occurrences of problems and given solutions.https://sites.google.com/view/pro-coinbase-com-login/homehttps://sites.google.com/view/procoinbasecomlogin/homehttps://s...
룰렛사이트 Email Homepage
2022-6-27 12:37
My curiosity was solved by looking at your writing. Your writing was helpful to me. 룰렛사이트 I want to help you too.
canon b200 error Email Homepage
2022-6-27 14:56
You start your canon printer, select a document to print, and you receive a B200 Error on your printer screen. canon b200 error | canon printer b200 error reset | canon printer error b200E
mikasa gomez Email Homepage
2022-6-27 16:26
Thank you this is such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free.abc.com/activatenbc.com/activateweathergroup.com/activate
John Email
2022-6-28 17:37
https://upheldlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://geminin-login.mobirisesite.com/https://kocoinlogi.mobirisesite.com/https://kruken-login.mobirisesite.com/https://loginmatamask.mobirisesite.com/https://wallet-metamasck.mobirisesite.com/https://phantumwallat.mobirisesite.com/https://trazorwallet.mobirisesite.com/https://banancewallet.mobirisesite.com/https://roniniwallet.mobirisesite.com/https://okxxlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://exchangeuniswap.mobirisesite.com/https://exodoswallet.mobirisesite.com/https://loginwebull.mobirisesite.com/https://blockfiilogin.mobirisesite.com/https://coinbase-wallat.mobirisesite.com/https://fentomwallet.mobirisesite.com/https://pro-coinbselogin.mobirisesite.com/https://uphuldlog-in.mobirisesite.com/https://gemni-login.mobirisesite.com/https://krakeni-login.mobirisesite.com/https://kuc0inlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://mitamasklogi.mobirisesite.com/https://phentumwallet.mobirisesite.com/https://opholdlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://loginvgemini.mobirisesite.com/https://kocoin-exchange.mobirisesite.com/https://kucoeinxlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://krekan-login.mobirisesite.com/
카지노커뮤니티 Email
2022-6-28 17:42
When did you start writing articles related to ? To write a post by reinterpreting the 카지노커뮤니티 I used to know is amazing. I want to talk more closely about , can you give me a message?
mshahid Email
2022-6-28 19:59
Keep all the articles coming. I love reading through your things. Cheers.  kdramahood
JACKSON
2022-6-29 16:29
Thank you for such a great post:-https://phld-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://upld-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://kcon-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://kcn-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://gmni-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://gmn-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://krkn-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://krken-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://mtmk-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://mtmk-wlt.mobirisesite.com/https://mtmask-lgn.mobirisesite.com/https://metamk.mobirisesite.com/https://phantm-wllt.mobirisesite.com/https://phntom-wllt.mobirisesite.com/https://uniswp-xhng.mobirisesite.com/https://nswp-xchng.mobirisesite.com/
Martin Email
2022-6-29 16:37
If you are unable to log in to your MetaMask wallet or use any of its services, then you first need to log out from the "Settings" menu and select the "Import using account Secret Recovery Phrase" option. After choosing this option, you just need to follow the prompts and enter the 12-word secret recovery phrase in the given spaces for recovery.https://upholdlogon.mobirisesite.com/https://gemini-logn.mobirisesite.com/https://krrakenlogin.mobirisesite.com/https://...
分页: 310/312 第一页 上页 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]