[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,
技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(312) | 引用(0) | 阅读(198569)
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2011-6-28 12:09
张老师,你的配置 -w 30000,51200,10  这句话是什么意思呢?
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网帖发出后,范洁平步青云的仕途引发众多网友质疑。11月30日下午,湖北江陵县委组织部对此回应,“范洁毕业时以选调生的身份入职,后面通过省里的‘年轻干部成长工程’得以进入县里”,并称“范洁职务的升迁都是公开透明地进行、经得起推敲和质疑”。
    网友“琴瑟无音”的网帖发布后,引来众多网友围观,其平步青云的仕途成为网友质疑的焦点。
    网友“zhaxirandan”则认为,“现在乡镇一级都升得较快,26岁担任县委常委虽属年轻,但并无不妥。”
    对于网友质疑范洁频繁升迁一事,这位工作人员表示,范洁升迁“与后台和背景之类的没有关系”。据该工作人员介绍,范洁本科毕业后,通过参加选调生考试进入江陵县滩桥镇工作,“后来得益于湖北省‘年轻干部成长工程’,进入县里面工作”。
    网友“lyt1982”回帖称,“毕业当镇团委书记,次年就升任副镇长,不会是女超人吧?可惜的是四年升迁四次,做出了啥不同凡响的成绩没。”网友“jidili”则质疑,少女文胸品牌,“从其简历来看,科员升副科,副科升科长都不足一年,这样也可以?”
江陵县26岁县委常委引发网友热议。 网络截图
    网帖内容显示,范洁自2008年6月从华中农业大学毕业后,于当年7月担任滩桥镇党政综合办公室副主任、团委书记,次年4月升任滩桥镇副镇长、党委委员,2010年3月升迁至滩桥镇党委副书记、镇长。今年9月,范洁再次升迁,担任滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席; 10月,范洁升任江陵县委常委,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席;11月至今,【SMM】SMM2011中文官网全程直播合作,范洁担任江陵县委常委、统战部部长,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席。
回应:升迁经得起推敲和质疑
爆料:26岁县委常委四年升迁四次
    11月30日下午,网友“琴瑟无音”在华声论坛发帖,称湖北江陵县委常委、统战部部长范洁是“史上最牛县委常委”。据网帖爆料,范洁出生于1985年,自2008年本科毕业后,不到四年时间连升四次,现任江陵县委常委、统战部部长,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席。
zaq1234123 Email Homepage
2011-12-14 17:03
回应:升迁经得起推敲和质疑
    爆料:26岁县委常委四年升迁四次



    网帖发出后,南方人才网 湖北江陵县26岁女常委本科毕业4年升迁4次(,范洁平步青云的仕途引发众多网友质疑。11月30日下午,湖北江陵县委组织部对此回应,“范洁毕业时以选调生的身份入职,后面通过省里的‘年轻干部成长工程’得以进入县里”,并称“范洁职务的升迁都是公开透明地进行、经得起推敲和质疑”。



    网友“琴瑟无音”的网帖发布后,引来众多网友围观,其平步青云的仕途成为网友质疑的焦点。



江陵县26岁县委常委引发网友热议。 网络截图
    网友“zhaxirandan”则认为,“现在乡镇一级都升得较快,26岁担任县委常委虽属年轻,但并无不妥。”



    “湖北江陵县诞生了史上最牛县委常委,副处级干部哪,县委常委哪,只有26岁哇!”11月30日,有网友在华声论坛发帖爆料,51.com,出生于1985年的范洁自2008年大学本科毕业后,直接担任江陵县滩桥镇党政综合办公室副主任、团委书记,并在不到四年的时间里,升迁四次,现任江陵县委常委、统战部部长,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席。


    网帖内容显示,范洁自2008年6月从华中农业大学毕业后,于当年7月担任滩桥镇党政综合办公室副主任、团委书记,次年4月升任滩桥镇副镇长、党委委员,2010年3月升迁至滩桥镇党委副书记、镇长。今年9月,范洁再次升迁,担任滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席;10月,范洁升任江陵县委常委,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席;11月至今,范洁担任江陵县委常委、统战部部长,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席。
    网友“lyt1982”回帖称,“毕业当镇团委书记,次年就升任副镇长,不会是女超人吧?可惜的是四年升迁四次,做出了啥不同凡响的成绩没。”网友“jidili”则质疑,“从其简历来看,科员升副科,副科升科长都不足一年,这样也可以?”

    对于网友质疑范洁频繁升迁一事,这位工作人员表示,范洁升迁“与后台和背景之类的没有关系”。据该工作人员介绍,范洁本科毕业后,通过参加选调生考试进入江陵县滩桥镇工作,“后来得益于湖北省‘年轻干部成长工程’,进入县里面工作”。
    11月30日下午,网友“琴瑟无音”在华声论坛发帖,称湖北江陵县委常委、统战部部长范洁是“史上最牛县委常委”。据网帖爆料,范洁出生于1985年,自2008年本科毕业后,不到四年时间连升四次,现任江陵县委常委、统战部部长,滩桥镇党委书记、人大主席。
zaq1234123 Email Homepage
2011-12-14 17:17
,湖北26岁女县委常委四年升迁四次 回应称经得起质疑 - 地方联播 - 新华网
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只要是民选的,吴彦祖,26岁当国家主席我都没意见
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2012-5-18 16:34
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2012-5-19 16:41
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