[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,
技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(1754) | 引用(0) | 阅读(256513)
www.mcafee.com/activate Email Homepage
2019-10-10 18:18
McAfee is available for home users as well as business users  McAfee Antivirus protect unlimited devices with complete virus protection and internet security. We are able to save our time, money or space with it.McAfee Antivirus applications which are easily available in the market and also on mcafee activatewww.mcafee.com/activate software offers the best security to your systemwww.mcafee.com/activate
Asss Email Homepage
2019-10-11 12:55
Norton Antivirus gives you ultimate protection to your computer. Norton antivirus defends your computer against viruses, malware, trojan and other online threats. Just follow on the link to download the norton antivirus setup.Norton.com/setuphttp://w-norton-norton.com/
Garmin Express Email
2019-10-11 14:50
Garmin Express Email
2019-10-11 14:51
Garmin Express Email
2019-10-11 14:51
Garmin Express Email
2019-10-11 14:52
Webroot.com/safe Email Homepage
2019-10-11 19:54
Webroot.com/safe - Enter Webroot Keycode to Download Webroot SecureAnywhere and Get Started with Webroot Installation in Some Simple Steps.http://www.webrootsafee.us/
lycamobile top up Email Homepage
2019-10-11 21:47
I found your blog via Google while searching for such kinda informative post and your post looks very interesting for me. <a href="https://lycamobile.codes">lycamobile top up</a>
mr nasir Email Homepage
2019-10-12 16:13
If you are facing any issues regarding office.com/setup , turbotax login and norton.com/setup you will get an instant online solution . For more details visit this link which is given below:<a href=http://myturbotaxlogin.com/">Turbotax Login</a><a href=http://www.nortoncomsetupp.uk/">Norton.com/Setup</a><a href=http://officecomsetupp.uk/">Office.com/Setup</a>
office.com/setup Email Homepage
2019-10-12 18:19
I like this blog very much, Its a very nice billet to read and incur Info.http://officesetup-officecomsetup.comhttp://www.office-help-setup.com
office.com/setup Email Homepage
2019-10-12 18:20
We are here to help you out with Office Setup including the whole procedure to Download Microsoft Office online.
bhumika Email Homepage
2019-10-14 15:55
Hello. The blog that you have shared is surprisingly captivating .. searching forward for interminably online diaries<ahref”https://mac-support-number-pvt.blogspot.com/2019/07/how-to-fix-roadrunner-email-settings.html”>roadrunner email settings</a>.
Medicine Email Homepage
2019-10-14 17:11
Buy Medicine Online From Online Cannabis Otc

Onlinecannabisotc.com is one of the most famous pharmacy stores based in the United States and you can buy Medicine online at affordable rates. Place Order Hurry and Home Delivery
Visit:- https://www.onlinecannabisotc.com/
bhumika Email Homepage
2019-10-14 18:43
This post is incredible. The data here will without a doubt be of some assistance to me. Thanks!You can get all the more simple  post ”<ahref”https://www.doffitt.com/aol-mail-not-working-properly/”>aol mail login</a>.
jhon mark Email Homepage
2019-10-14 19:25
AVG antivirus is the security program that works after it’s activation with avg retail. It requires an activation product key to activate AVG’s working and to protect your operating system.   www.avg.com/retail |  avg.com/retail
installkaspersky Email Homepage
2019-10-14 20:43
install kaspersky with activation code | How to install and activate kaspersky on multiple computers•  Each copy of a multiple-device license for Kaspersky Anti-Virus 2019 (for example, a 3 PCs license) is installed and activated in the same way on all computers you want to protect.•  In conclusion to activate Kaspersky Internet Security 2019 on all computers, use one and the same activation code you purchased.<a href="https://installkaspersky.com/kaspersky-support-number/">kaspersky support number and Kaspersky Total Security Download</a><a href="https://installkaspersky.com/kaspersky-download-and-install">kaspersky installation</a><a href="https://installkaspersky.com/kaspersky-setup/">kaspersky setup</a><a href="https://installkaspersky.com">install kaspersky with activation code</a><a href="http://installkaspersky.com/kaspersky-code-activation">kaspersky code activation and kaspersky lab</a><a href="https://installkaspersky.com/geek-squad-kaspersky-activation-code">Geek squad kaspersky activation code</a>
InsideGoa Email Homepage
2019-10-14 22:26
Miramar Beach Goa, Find out detailed information about Miramar Beach Tour including travel tips, hotels near Miramar Beach, best time to visit & much more.Inside Goahttps://insidegoa.com/
InsideGoa Email Homepage
2019-10-14 22:26
Miramar Beach Goa, Find out detailed information about Miramar Beach Tour including travel tips, hotels near Miramar Beach, best time to visit & much more.Inside Goahttps://insidegoa.com/
daniel11ryan Email Homepage
2019-10-15 14:44
Norton Setup Enter your product key online. Download &amp; Install Norton antivirus Product Visit activation website to register your code.Visit for my website : <a href="http://aunotronnorton.com/">norton.com/setup</a>
分页: 87/88 第一页 上页 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]