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  请点击Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.13(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第6版)




  [文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v3.2 最后修改:2008.07.16 转载请注明原文链接:http://blog.zyan.cc/read.php/351.htm]

  前言:本文是我撰写的关于搭建“Nginx + PHP(FastCGI)”Web服务器的第3篇文章,也是Nginx 0.6系列版本成为稳定版后的第一篇文章,安装、配置方式与以往略有不同,并增加了一些在生产环境运行中不断修改、调整,总结出的配置上的优化。

  链接:《2007年9月的第1版》、《2007年12月的第2版

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  Nginx ("engine x") 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

  Nginx 的中文维基:http://wiki.codemongers.com/NginxChs



  在高并发连接的情况下,Nginx是Apache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.6.31 + PHP 5.2.6 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache的10倍

  根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apache(prefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients为4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。

  而这台 Nginx 0.6.31 + PHP 5.2.6 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10个Nginx进程消耗150M内存(15M*10=150M),开启的64个php-cgi进程消耗1280M内存(20M*64=1280M),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共消耗不到2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25个php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才500M。

  在3万并发连接下,访问Nginx 0.6.31 + PHP 5.2.6 (FastCGI) 服务器的PHP程序,仍然速度飞快。下图为Nginx的状态监控页面,显示的活动连接数为28457(关于Nginx的监控页配置,会在本文接下来所给出的Nginx配置文件中写明):

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  我生产环境下的两台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器,跑多个一般复杂的纯PHP动态程序,单台Nginx + PHP5(FastCGI)服务器跑PHP动态程序的处理能力已经超过“700次请求/秒”,相当于每天可以承受6000万(700*60*60*24=60480000)的访问量(更多信息见此),而服务器的系统负载也不算高:

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片



  安装步骤:
  (系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.1,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)

  一、获取相关开源程序:
  1、利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):
sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libpng libpng-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel


  2、下载程序源码包:
  本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到2008年6月5日的最新稳定版。(2008年6月底,sourceforge.net被GFW,下列的libmcrypt、mcrypt和mhash改从镜像站下载)
mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.6.31.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.6.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://php-fpm.anight.org/downloads/head/php-5.2.6-fpm-0.5.8.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.26-rc.tar.gz/from/http://mirror.x10.com/mirror/mysql/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.12.tar.gz
#wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget http://mirror.optus.net/sourceforge/m/mc/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
#wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.7.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget http://mirror.optus.net/sourceforge/m/mc/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.7.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.3.tgz
#wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget http://mirror.optus.net/sourceforge/m/mh/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.tar.gz
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.7.tar.gz
wget http://xcache.lighttpd.net/pub/Releases/1.2.2/xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz



  二、安装PHP 5.2.6(FastCGI模式)
  1、编译安装PHP 5.2.6所需的支持库:
tar zxvf libiconv-1.12.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.12/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

cp /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.* /usr/lib
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.7.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.7/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../



  2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.26-rc
/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.26-rc.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.26-rc/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --without-debug --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/mysql.sock --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=gbk,gb2312,utf8 --with-pthread --enable-thread-safe-client
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cp support-files/my-medium.cnf /usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf
cd ../



  附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。
  ①、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/data --user=mysql --pid-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/mysql.pid --skip-locking --port=3306 --socket=/tmp/mysql.sock


  ②、启动MySQL(最后的&表示在后台运行)
/bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/my.cnf &



  3、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)
tar zxvf php-5.2.6.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.6-fpm-0.5.8.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.6 -p1
cd php-5.2.6/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-debug --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl
sed -i 's#-lz -lm -lxml2 -lz -lm -lxml2 -lz -lm -lcrypt#& -liconv#' Makefile
make
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../



  4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块
tar zxvf memcache-2.2.3.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz
cd xcache-1.2.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --enable-xcache
make
make install
cd ../


  5、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
  修改为extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
  并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:
  extension = "memcache.so"

  再查找display_errors = On
  修改为display_errors = Off

  自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:
sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#display_errors = On#display_errors = Off#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini


  6、配置XCache加速PHP:
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

  按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:
引用
[xcache-common]
zend_extension = /usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/xcache.so

[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.user = "xcache"
; xcache.admin.pass = md5($yourpasswd)
xcache.admin.pass = "8e6867a5d05144cf4761d6481fc674a8"

[xcache]
xcache.cacher = On
xcache.shm_scheme = "mmap"
xcache.size = 32M
; cpu number (cat /proc/cpuinfo |grep -c processor)
xcache.count = 2
xcache.slots = 8k
xcache.ttl = 0
xcache.gc_interval = 0
xcache.var_size = 2M
; cpu number (cat /proc/cpuinfo |grep -c processor)
xcache.var_count = 2
xcache.var_slots = 8K
xcache.var_ttl = 0
xcache.var_maxttl = 0
xcache.var_gc_interval = 300
xcache.readonly_protection = Off
xcache.mmap_path = "/dev/zero"



  7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.zyan.cc和www.zyan.cc两个虚拟主机使用的目录:
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www


  8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
  在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

  输入以下内容:  9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启25个进程),用户为www:
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

  注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。



  三、安装Nginx 0.6.31
  1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:
tar zxvf pcre-7.7.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.7/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../


  2、安装Nginx
tar zxvf nginx-0.6.31.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.6.31/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../


  3、创建Nginx日志目录
mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs


  4、创建Nginx配置文件
  ①、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:
rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events
{
      use epoll;

      worker_connections 51200;
}

http
{
      include       mime.types;
      default_type  application/octet-stream;

      charset  utf-8;
      
      server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
      
      sendfile on;
      tcp_nopush     on;

      keepalive_timeout 60;

      tcp_nodelay on;

      fastcgi_connect_timeout 60;
      fastcgi_send_timeout 180;
      fastcgi_read_timeout 180;
      fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
      fastcgi_buffers 4 128k;
      fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
      fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
      fastcgi_temp_path /dev/shm;

      gzip on;
      gzip_min_length  1k;
      gzip_buffers     4 8k;
      gzip_http_version 1.1;
      gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css text/html application/xml;

      server
      {
              listen       80;
              server_name  blog.zyan.cc;
              index index.html index.htm index.php;
              root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

              if (-d $request_filename)
              {
                     rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
              }
                            
              location ~ .*\.php?$
              {
                   include fcgi.conf;      
                   #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                   fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                   fastcgi_index index.php;
              }

              log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                                    '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                    '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
              access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }

      server
      {
              listen       80;
              server_name  www.zyan.cc;
              index index.html index.htm index.php;
              root  /data0/htdocs/www;

              if (-d $request_filename)
              {
                     rewrite ^/(.*)([^/])$ http://$host/$1$2/ permanent;
              }

              location ~ .*\.php?$
              {
                   include fcgi.conf;
                   #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
                   fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
                   fastcgi_index index.php;
              }

              log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                                    '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                                    '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
              access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
      }

      server
      {
              listen  80;
              server_name  status.blog.zyan.cc;

              location / {
                   stub_status on;
                   access_log   off;
              }
      }
}


  ②、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
#fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;


  5、启动Nginx
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



  四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx



  五、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000


  使配置立即生效:
/sbin/sysctl -p



  六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
  (1)、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t

  如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully


  (2)、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:
ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'

  屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
  6302
  这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:
kill -HUP 6302

  或者无需这么麻烦,找到Nginx的Pid文件:
kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



  本文若有小的修改,会第一时间在以下网址发布:
  http://blog.zyan.cc/read.php/351.htm

  (全文完)




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shzz Email
2022-8-24 01:16
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shzz Email
2022-8-24 01:24
This is a wonderful article, Given so much info in it, These type of articles keeps the users interest in the website, and keep on sharing more ... good luck.  Ian Stanley
shz Email
2022-8-24 01:25
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shzz Email
2022-8-24 01:27
New site is solid. A debt of gratitude is in order for the colossal exertion.  Ian Stanley
shzz Email
2022-8-24 01:30
You have done a great job. I will definitely dig it and personally recommend to my friends. I am confident they will be benefited from this site.  Ian Stanley
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