[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.0 最后修改:2008.11.19 转载请注明原文链接:http://blog.zyan.cc/post/379/]

  在生产应用中,某台“Nginx+PHP+MySQL”接口数据服务器,扮演的角色十分重要,如果服务器硬件或Nginx、MySQL发生故障,而短时间内无法恢复,后果将非常严重。为了避免单点故障,我设计了此套方案,编写了failover.sh脚本,实现了双机互备、全自动切换,故障转移时间只需几十秒。

  一、双机互备、全自动切换方案:
  1、拓扑图:
  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、解释:
  (1)、假设外网域名blog.zyan.cc解析到外网虚拟IP 72.249.146.214上,内网hosts设置db10对应内网虚拟IP 192.168.146.214

  (2)、默认情况下,由主机绑定内、外网虚拟IP,备机作为备份,当主机的MySQL、Nginx或服务器出现故障无法访问时,备机会自动接管内、外网虚拟IP。两台服务器都启动负责监控、自动切换虚拟IP的守护进程/usr/bin/nohup /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/failover/failover.sh 2>&1 > /dev/null &

  (3)、主机和备机上的MySQL服务器互为主从,互相同步。在主机处于活动状态(即由主机绑定虚拟IP)时,读写主机的MySQL,写到主机的数据会同步到备机;在备机处于活动状态时,读写备机的MySQL,写到备机的数据会同步到主机(如果主机上的MySQL死掉暂时无法同步,主机上的MySQL恢复后,数据会自动从备机上同步过来,反之亦然)。

  (4)、主机处于活动状态时,每20秒会把/data0/htdocs/(网页、程序、图片存放目录)、/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/(php.ini等配置文件目录)、/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/(Nginx配置文件目录)三个目录下的文件通过rsync推送到备机服务器上的对应目录(增量推送,两台服务器上一样的文件不会重复推送),反之如果备机处于活动状态时,每20秒会尝试把文件推送到主机。rsync的配置文件见两台服务器的/etc/rsyncd.conf,rsync守护进程的启动命令为rsync --daemon

  3、自动切换流程
  (1)、主机默认绑定内、外网虚拟IP,当主机的MySQL、Nginx无法访问或服务器宕机,主机上的failover.sh守护进程会自动摘除自己绑定的内、外网虚拟IP(如果主机上的failover.sh死掉,无法摘除自己绑定的虚拟IP也没关系),备机上的failover.sh守护进程会自动接管备机原来绑定的内、外网虚拟IP,并发送ARPing包给内、外网网关更新MAC,强行接管。

  (2)、备机绑定虚拟IP后,会发送ARPing包给内、外网网关,通知网关更新虚拟IP的MAC地址为备机的MAC地址,从而保证了切换后能够通过虚拟IP及时访问到备机。

  (3)、如果主机的MySQL、Nginx启动起来,全部恢复正常访问,主机上的failover.sh守护进程会检测主机上的MySQL数据是否已经完全从备机上同步过来。如果同步延迟时间为0,主机会自动接管内、外网虚拟IP,并发送ARPing包给内、外网网关,而备机也会自动摘除内、外网虚拟IP。

  (4)、整个切换流程均由failover.sh自动完成,无需人工处理。

  4、注意事项(很重要):
  (1)、crontab里的文件没有做自动同步,如果修改,需要手工在两台服务器上都做修改。

  (2)、/data0/htdocs/目录内任何用ln -s建立的软连接,rsync不会自动同步,如果在一台服务器上建了软连接,需要手工在另外一台服务器上也建相同的软连接。

  (3)、如果要删除/data0/htdocs/目录内的某些文件或目录,需要先删除处于活动状态(即绑定了虚拟IP)服务器上的文件或目录,再删除处于备用状态服务器上的文件或目录。

  (4)、除了/data0/htdocs/(网页、程序、图片存放目录)、/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/(php.ini等配置文件目录)、/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/(Nginx配置文件目录)三个目录之外的其他配置修改,需要在两台服务器上都做修改。



  二、配置文档与脚本:
  1、主机、备机两台服务器的rsync配置(配置相同)
  (1)、rsync配置文件
vi /etc/rsyncd.conf

  输入一些内容并保存:
引用
uid = root
gid = root
use chroot = no
max connections = 20
pid file = /var/run/rsyncd.pid
lock file = /var/run/rsync.lock
log file = /var/log/rsyncd.log

[data0_htdocs]
path = /data0/htdocs/
ignore errors
read only = no
hosts allow = 192.168.146.0/24
hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/32

[php_etc]
path = /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/
ignore errors
read only = no
hosts allow = 192.168.146.0/24
hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/32

[nginx_conf]
path = /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/
ignore errors
read only = no
hosts allow = 192.168.146.0/24
hosts deny = 0.0.0.0/32


  (2)、启动rsync守护进程
/usr/bin/rsync --daemon


  2、两台MySQL互为主从的配置
  这里就不详细写出互为主从的配置过程了,如果不懂的朋友可以在Google上搜一下。有一点需要指出,my.cnf配置文件中请加上skip-name-resolve参数,使用IP来进行MySQL帐号验证。

  3、主机、备机两台服务器负载监控、虚拟IP自动切换的failover.sh守护进程
  (1)、启动failover.sh守护进程(为了开机能够自动运行,请将以下语句添加到/etc/rc.local文件中):
/usr/bin/nohup /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/failover/failover.sh 2>&1 > /dev/null &


  (2)、停止failover.sh守护进程:
ps -ef | grep failover.sh

  会显示以下信息:
  root     15428     1  0 Nov17 ?        00:00:03 /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/failover/failover.sh
  root     20123  6878  0 16:16 pts/2    00:00:00 grep failover.sh

  然后杀死failover.sh的进程:
kill -9 15428


  (3)、failover.sh代码内容(请注意其中的type设置,主机设为master,备机设为slave):
#!/bin/sh
LANG=C
date=$(date -d "today" +"%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S")

#---------------配置信息(开始)---------------
#类型:主机设为master,备机设为slave
type="master"

#主机、备机切换日志路径
logfile="/var/log/failover.log"

#MySQL可执行文件地址,例如/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql;MySQL用户名;密码;端口
mysql_bin="/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql"
mysql_username="root"
mysql_password="123456"
mysql_port="3306"

#内网网关
gateway_eth0="192.168.146.1"

#主机内网真实IP
rip_eth0_master="192.168.146.213"

#备机内网真实IP
rip_eth0_slave="192.168.146.215"

#主机、备机内网共用的虚拟IP
vip_eth0_share="192.168.113.214"


#外网网关
gateway_eth1="72.249.146.193"

#主机外网真实IP
rip_eth1_master="72.249.146.213"

#备机外网真实IP
rip_eth1_slave="72.249.146.215"

#主机、备机外网共用的虚拟IP
vip_eth1_share="72.249.146.214"
#---------------配置信息(结束)---------------

#绑定内、外网虚拟IP
function_bind_vip()
{
    /sbin/ifconfig eth0:vip ${vip_eth0_share} broadcast ${vip_eth0_share} netmask 255.255.255.255 up
    /sbin/route add -host ${vip_eth0_share} dev eth0:vip
    /sbin/ifconfig eth1:vip ${vip_eth1_share} broadcast ${vip_eth1_share} netmask 255.255.255.255 up
    /sbin/route add -host ${vip_eth1_share} dev eth1:vip
    /usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm reload
    kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/nginx.pid`
    /sbin/service crond start
}

#解除内、外网虚拟IP
function_remove_vip()
{
    /sbin/ifconfig eth0:vip ${vip_eth0_share} broadcast ${vip_eth0_share} netmask 255.255.255.255 down
    /sbin/ifconfig eth1:vip ${vip_eth1_share} broadcast ${vip_eth1_share} netmask 255.255.255.255 down
    /sbin/service crond stop
}

#主机向备机推送文件的函数
function_rsync_master_to_slave()
{
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /data0/htdocs/ ${rip_eth0_slave}::data0_htdocs/ > /dev/null 2>&1
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/ ${rip_eth0_slave}::php_etc/ > /dev/null 2>&1
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/ ${rip_eth0_slave}::nginx_conf/ > /dev/null 2>&1
}

#备机向主机推送文件的函数
function_rsync_slave_to_master()
{
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /data0/htdocs/ ${rip_eth0_master}::data0_htdocs/ > /dev/null 2>&1
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/ ${rip_eth0_master}::php_etc/ > /dev/null 2>&1
    /usr/bin/rsync -zrtuog /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/ ${rip_eth0_master}::nginx_conf/ > /dev/null 2>&1
}

#虚拟IP ARPing
function_vip_arping()
{
  /sbin/arping -I eth0 -c 3 -s ${vip_eth0_share} ${gateway_eth0} > /dev/null 2>&1
  /sbin/arping -I eth1 -c 3 -s ${vip_eth1_share} ${gateway_eth1} > /dev/null 2>&1  
}

while true
do
    #用HTTP协议检查虚拟IP
    if (curl -m 30 -G http://${vip_eth1_share}/ > /dev/null 2>&1) && (${mysql_bin} -u"${mysql_username}" -p"${mysql_password}" -P"${mysql_port}" -h"${vip_eth0_share}" -e"show slave status\G" > /dev/null 2>&1)
    then
    #取得与内网VIP绑定的服务器内网IP
    eth0_active_server=$(${mysql_bin} -u"${mysql_username}" -p"${mysql_password}" -P"${mysql_port}" -h"${vip_eth0_share}" -e"show slave status\G" | grep "Master_Host" | awk -F ': ' '{printf $2}')
    
    #如果内网VIP=主机内网IP(主机MySQL中的Master_Host显示的是备机的域名或IP),且本机为主机
    if [ "${eth0_active_server}" = "${rip_eth0_slave}" ] && [ "${type}" = "master" ]
    then
      function_rsync_master_to_slave
      function_vip_arping    
    #如果内网VIP=备机内网IP(备机MySQL中的Master_Host显示的是主机的域名或IP)
    elif [ "${eth0_active_server}" = "${rip_eth0_master}" ]
    then
      if (curl -m 30 -G http://${rip_eth1_master}/ > /dev/null 2>&1) && (${mysql_bin} -u"${mysql_username}" -p"${mysql_password}" -P"${mysql_port}" -h"${rip_eth0_master}" -e"show slave status\G" | grep "Seconds_Behind_Master: 0" > /dev/null 2>&1)
      then
        #如果主机能够访问,数据库同步无延迟,且本机就是主机,那么由本机绑定虚拟IP
        if [ "${type}" = "master" ]
        then
          #如果本机为主机
       function_bind_vip
          function_vip_arping
          echo "${date} 主机已绑定虚拟IP!(Type:1)" >> ${logfile}
        else
          #如果本机为备机
       function_remove_vip
          echo "${date} 备机已去除虚拟IP!(Type:2)" >> ${logfile}
        fi
      else
        if [ "${type}" = "slave" ]
        then
          #如果本机为备机
       function_rsync_slave_to_master        
          function_vip_arping
        fi      
      fi
    fi
    else
        #虚拟IP无法访问时,判断主机能否访问
        if (curl -m 30 -G http://${rip_eth1_master}/ > /dev/null 2>&1) && (${mysql_bin} -u"${mysql_username}" -p"${mysql_password}" -P"${mysql_port}" -h"${rip_eth0_master}" -e"show slave status\G" > /dev/null 2>&1)
        then
            #如果主机能够访问,且本机就是主机,那么由本机绑定虚拟IP
            if [ "${type}" = "master" ]
            then
                function_bind_vip
                function_vip_arping
                echo "${date} 主机已绑定虚拟IP!(Type:3)" >> ${logfile}
            else
                function_remove_vip
                echo "${date} 备机已去除虚拟IP!(Type:4)" >> ${logfile}
            fi
    elif (curl -m 30 -G http://${rip_eth1_slave}/ > /dev/null 2>&1) && (${mysql_bin} -u"${mysql_username}" -p"${mysql_password}" -P"${mysql_port}" -h"${rip_eth0_slave}" -e"show slave status\G" > /dev/null 2>&1)
        then
            #如果主机不能访问而备机能够访问,且本机就是备机,那么由备机绑定虚拟IP
            if [ "${type}" = "slave" ]
            then
                function_bind_vip
                function_vip_arping
                echo "${date} 备机已绑定虚拟IP!(Type:5)" >> ${logfile}
            else
                function_remove_vip
                echo "${date} 主机已去除虚拟IP!(Type:6)" >> ${logfile}
            fi
        else
            echo "${date} 主机、备机全部无法访问!(Type:7)" >> ${logfile}
        fi
    fi
    #每次循环暂停20秒(即间隔20秒检测一次)
    sleep 20
done


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技术大类 » Web服务器 | 评论(78) | 引用(123) | 阅读(132631)
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Durante l'insediamento di questa nazione, la formazione residenza era stato approvato in quanto i mezzi primari connessi con l'insegnamento giovane children.Astonishingly, questo particolare rivolta a una certa quantità di alfabetizzazione per quanto riguarda quasi il 98%. Naturalmente, come popolazione della nazione è aumentato, di conseguenza, anche il numero di collegi, ognuno manifeste e religiosi (privato). Questo modello, realizzato con un tasso di crescita di quasi il 15% per year.However, spinto dentro parte a causa delle scelte migliori della Corte riguardanti l'esercizio delle credenze religiose nelle istituzioni educative liberamente, il affare reale con attività dell'istruzione ha iniziato a essere in grado di modificare.
Come si può utilizzare l'aiuto madre e il padre web (e anche studenti) che hanno proprietà di college?
I genitori che l'università delle famiglie utilizzare vari mezzi relativi capire l'età e anche adeguatezza grado del tema matter.As loro miglioramento per mezzo di soggetti semplici, che comprendono la matematica, la lettura e anche la composizione,ray ban milano, possono inoltre migliorare il proprio carico di corso semplicemente eseguendo il l'esempio research.For web, la particolare Society Gentle all'interno del loro quartiere fornisce deciso di prendere in considerazione un nuovo "no kill" policy.The ragazzi particolari vengono indicate una nuova genuina curiosità nel corso di questo argomento e devono rendersi conto aggiuntivo rispetto al giornale offre effettivamente . Semplicemente aprendo il world wide web, questo tipo di genitore può fornire agli studenti universitari ragazza sforzo avranno bisogno di dover sapere per quanto riguarda "no kill" amenità rifugio vicino al fine di famiglia o forse per il mondo attuale.
Una volta che la scolarizzazione padre o la madre a casa sembra comodo trasferendo sulla rete con i siti, la prossima sono pronti ad alimentare queste informazioni sulle loro collegio students.These persone avranno l'uso di un software davvero utile istruire * generalmente ideale nelle loro house.Parents può anche fare i loro molto propri siti web con corsi insieme con obiettivi per gli studenti per la revisione, nonché rispettare più di vostro corso di formazione con la loro formazione.
Studio on-line non solo porta materiale scritto per quanto riguarda temi distinti, via Aardvarks essere in grado di Zen, inoltre,ray ban prezzi, presenta immagini, disegni, sembra con i film * Le voci che sono particolarmente attraenti per essere in grado di universitari students.Visiting siti web prima di insegnare in quanto riguarda un argomento permette chiaramente l'istruttore reale per voi di scegliere i particolari siti internet che sarà più efficace per soddisfare le loro particolari competenze specifiche di apprendimento curriculum.This "multimediale" mantiene l'interesse del vostro studente, anche se la pianificazione Questi telefoni accordo con il nuovo calcestruzzo marca realtà di un mondo sempre più concentrati nelle tecnologie.
L'ultimo termine (s).
Perché si scopre avanzamenti scientifici e che tenga luogo di ogni e ogni ora che coinvolgono quotidianamente, può essere estremamente critica che a casa gli studenti di college istruiti entrare nel "era digitale" usando entrambi gli occhi aperti con entrambi ft inserito in questo nuovo ground.This può essere dovuto al fatto manifeste e anche scuole personali ciascuno concentrato su come lavorare con i computer e ogni cosa relativa per loro di offrire ai propri studenti un nuovo side.Actually ragazzi competitivi, più giovane, perché sei sono "computer ben scritto." Le richieste della madre o del padre che le scuole casa significano queste persone dovrebbero sempre più affidamento su skill.They computer portatile può facilmente realizzare queste funzionalità semplicemente aprendo il tutorial di internet e siti web associati.
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[2014-5-9 22:59]
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[2014-5-21 05:00]
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