[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.0 最后修改:2008.11.28 转载请注明原文链接:http://blog.zyan.cc/post/382/]

  今天在配置Nginx + PHP + MediaWiki中,发现一个问题:MediaWiki所在的Nginx虚拟主机绑定了多个域名,但是不管通过什么域名访问MediaWiki首页,都会被跳转到其中的一个域名上。Nginx配置文件中没有相关的rewrite跳转规则,那么就应该是MediaWiki的PHP程序做的跳转,但是,遍历了MediaWiki目录下的所有文件以及查询了MySQL数据库中的每个表,都没有发现记录有这个域名。后来,通过查看源代码发现MediaWiki是根据$_SERVER['SERVER_NAME']做的跳转,顺藤摸瓜,发现了下列问题:

  在一个Nginx虚拟主机中,可以绑定多个server_name,例如:
  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  而server_name的先后顺序的不同,对PHP程序中使用$_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"]或getenv('SERVER_NAME')获取服务器域名是有影响的:
  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"]或getenv('SERVER_NAME')获取的始终将是Nginx server_name配置中的第一个域名,这一点在程序开发中需要注意。这第一个域名就相当于Apache虚拟主机配置中的ServerName,后面的域名就相当于Apache的ServerAlias。

  PS:以下是网友Daze的留言,希望对本文读者有所帮助。
引用
在某些情况下(具体可参考 wiki.nginx.org),Nginx 内部重定向规则会被启动,例如,当 URL 指向一个目录并且在最后没有包含“/”时,Nginx 内部会自动的做一个 301 重定向,这时会有两种情况:
1、server_name_in_redirect on(默认),URL 重定向为: server_name 中的第一个域名 + 目录名 + /;
2、server_name_in_redirect off,URL 重定向为: 原 URL 中的域名 + 目录名 + /。

当你有多个域名要指向同一个虚拟主机,并且你自己写 301 重定向规则把它们合并到某一个域名时,情况就更复杂了:
首先,nginx 检查 URL,如果符合条件,就用该规则(你写的)做第一遍重定向,接着,检查新生成的 URL,如果符合内部自动重定向之条件,就用前面提到的规则再做一次重定向。

至于 PHP 的 $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"],在 nginx 中默认是由 nginx 的变量 $server_name 提供,这时它和重定向没有关系,始终是 server_name 设置中的第一个域名,但这是可以被改变的,在你的 nginx 配置中找到 fastcgi_param 部分,修改
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME    $server_name;

fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME    $host;
但现在就要注意了,此时的 $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"] 会受你写的和 nginx 自己的重定向规则所影响而变化。

现在就清楚了,如果 MediaWiki 是通过 $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"] 来自己处理 URL 的话,那么在 nginx + php 的默认环境下,它获得的将始终是 server_name 设置中的第一个域名,所以造成了“不管通过什么域名访问 MediaWiki 首页,都会被跳转到其中的一个域名上。”,这不是 nginx 的重定向造成的,虽然默认 server_name_in_redirect 是 on,但这个指令的影响范围仅仅只是 nginx 自己内部的重定向规则,所以,当你在 nginx + php 的环境中使用多域名虚拟主机,并且你的 php 库、框架、代码大量使用 $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"] 时,你也许应该:
1、设置 fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME    $host;
2、设置 server_name_in_redirect off; 让 nginx 在处理自己内部重定向时不默认使用  server_name 设置中的第一个域名;
3、不要使用 nginx 的 rewrite 规则来重定向、合并多个域名。
当然,后俩条是完全可选的,前提是你清楚你在做什么并且小心处理这时的  $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"],也许更好的做法是保持 fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME    $server_name; ,然后合理使用 $_SERVER["SERVER_NAME"] 和 $_SERVER["HTTP_HOST"]。

这个问题确实很微妙,也许我的理解还是不完全,好在还有 curl ,慢慢研究了。 :-)

P.S. nginx 0.7.x 之前的版本还有一个指令 optimize_server_names 会影响内部重定向规则。


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