[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,
技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(2057) | 引用(0) | 阅读(265858)
Norton antivirus Email Homepage
2019-12-2 19:00
Norton antivirus is an anti virus or malware software products devloped and distributed by Symantec Corporation since 1991 as part of its Norton family of computer security products. It uses signatures and heuristics to identify viruses. Other features included in it are e-mail spam filtering and phishing protection.<a href="https://nortoncom-setup.co.uk/">office.com/setup</a>
norton setup Email Homepage
2019-12-2 19:52
Norton.com/Setup allows you to deploy your Norton setup effectively. Learn the basics to download, install and activate Norton Setup without any error.http://get-norton.com/
Norton Login Email Homepage
2019-12-2 20:17
Norton offers a comprehensive range of avant garde cybersecurity software products for unbeatable protection. It provides state-of-the-art and robust protective cover against every possible online threat. These innovative products are backed by advanced technology, feature-dense design and proactive, user-friendly approach.
Norton Login Email Homepage
2019-12-2 20:18
Norton is an industry-leading software that provides digital security to various products. It serves its customers with real-time protection and various comprehensive products.
Garmin Express Email Homepage
2019-12-2 20:18
Garmin Express is a desktop application designed for managing and updating your devices. With the help of this application, you can perform multiple functions such as software and maps update, product registration, data syncing, product manual installation, and much more.
GARY Email Homepage
2019-12-2 20:28
Fildena Want to increase erection time before early discharge? Buy Fildena medicine at your trusted 24X7 online pharmacy store. Grab 20% OFF + Free Shippinghttps://www.flatmeds.com/product/fildena/
Targeted web traffic Email Homepage
2019-12-3 07:45
Want high quality traffic flowing to your website from the most popular social media networks including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and more? It's easy! Buy social Traffic Place your order today at http://www.SEO25.com. Have questions first? Please contact us!
Targeted web traffic Email Homepage
2019-12-3 07:49
buy cheap Alexa traffic today and you will start to see results within just a few weeks (or sooner, depending on your current ranking). It's a great use of extra 2019 funds that will pay off in the new year! There are still four weeks left in Q4! Make the most of them and Buy Targeted Website Traffic to attract new prospects and customers to your website or blog. Everyone shops online these days .... help increase the odds of them buying with you!TARGETED WEB TRAFFICWith more people out and about during the summer months, Buy Mobile Traffic to catch them right where they are at. One of your best prospects might be on vacation standing in a three-hour line at Disney right now waiting to ride a rollercoaster and is killing time getting a jump on their business goals trying to find YOU! All Targeted Mobile Traffic comes from iOS and Android devices. You can even target a category!buy cheap alexa traffictargeted web traffic
James Email Homepage
2019-12-3 07:54
Wonder how to buy mobile traffic?  It's easy!  Contact us today to learn more.  Mobile traffic is where it's at with marketers spending almost 60-70% of their marketing budgets on digital ad spending. Don't miss out on this growing demographic!  Wouldn't you rather just float around in a pool this summer rather than scrambling to figure out how your target demographic is going to find your website?  Want a quick, easy and safe way to increase your visibility while not lifting a finger?  Buy website traffic and we will send traffic your way.  There are many different types of traffic, from our standard website website to targeted by US State and category to our premium keyword-driven organic traffic.  Something for everyone! buy mobile traffic - Buy website traffic- US State Targeted Website Traffic
online dissertation writing Email Homepage
2019-12-3 14:28
I Have Seen Many online dissertation writing, but Your Posts And Your Blog Are Very Useful For Me And You Are One Of The Best Blog Writers In UK.
geeksquadwebroot Email Homepage
2019-12-3 15:38
Webroot Safe install is the most popular computer security that helps you to protect Windows,Mac and Android devices.Below mentioned are the services provided by webroot geek squadBelow mentioned are the services provided by webroot geek squad<a href="https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download/">webroot download</a><a href="https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download-geek-squad/">webroot download geek squad</a><a href="https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download-geek-squad-download/">webroot download geek squad download</a><a href="https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download-geeksquad/">webroot download geeksquad</a><a href="https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-geek-squad-download-pc/">webroot geek squad download pc</a>https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download/https://geeksquadwebroot.com/webroot-download-geek-squad/https://geeksquad...
mdsnjani Email Homepage
2019-12-3 16:39
The Garmin ,a leader in creating products for satellite navigation and marketing of GPS products, is now known all over the world. Its surprisingly diverse production has allowed it to retain old customers and always find new ones. Attention to users who choose to take advantage of Garmin products, an efficient service center and customer service has been an attention that has not been missed .Given the diversification of products, even the assistance service is well sectorized: for all customers who have had problems in the use of automotive ,sports , and outdoor, we recommend that you contact the  Maps Updates technical support helpline any time. and visitn garmin updates
mdsnjani Email Homepage
2019-12-3 16:40
The Garmin ,a leader in creating products for satellite navigation and marketing of GPS products, is now known all over the world. Its surprisingly diverse production has allowed it to retain old customers and always find new ones. Attention to users who choose to take advantage of Garmin products, an efficient service center and customer service has been an attention that has not been missed .Given the diversification of products, even the assistance service is well sectorized: for all customers who have had problems in the use of automotive ,sports , and outdoor, we recommend that you contact the  Maps Updates technical support helpline any time.garmin updates
doony Email Homepage
2019-12-4 00:08
great post! thank you for sharing this post I am glad to be here and read this chand shayaribroken heart shayaribollywood shayari
mAXSON Homepage
2019-12-4 04:07
I am a Web Designer By Profession - If You want Design Any Website in future Ping me :)!I can give you a Premium design in a Cheap price .Below are the Samples Websites, Which i have designed for my Clients!Real Human Website Traffic
larryasmi Email Homepage
2019-12-4 12:51
Vidalista The secret of unbelievable relationships available vidalista 40 online is the most satisfactory option to make love. Check out Reviews + Deals + Best OFFERS
brendonjon Email Homepage
2019-12-4 13:13
Are you looking for www Norton com/setup ? your search ends here. Go to norton com setup site and download, installand activate by entering 25 character key to your norton product. Get the ultimate experience by norton powerfulfeatures to protect your system from all kind of online threats.Norton.com/setup
norton setup Email Homepage
2019-12-4 13:44
Are you facing issues in downloading, installing and activating Norton setup via norton.com/setup? Here are the easy to follow steps for each process. If you want to more information just visit www.norton.com/setup or call our customer support number.
garminexpressglobal Email Homepage
2019-12-4 15:52
I really appreciate your works. With the help of the Garmin Express application, you can easily update your device. Garmin Express is now installed and can be used with compatible GPS devices.https://garminexpress.globalhttps://tomtomhome.chhttps://quickbooks-login.comhttps://norton-loginn.comhttps://randmcnall...
Carla Email Homepage
2019-12-4 18:48
Norton is a reputed and cost-effective antivirus suite company which offers protection so that no virus can damage your computer. It also provides many other products and services apart from antivirus.">norton.com/setup
分页: 101/103 第一页 上页 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]