[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(8516) | 引用(0) | 阅读(754576)
russellward Email
2023-2-27 16:51
buy anavar is used to help people regain weight they have lost due to certain medical conditions (such as surgery, chronic infection, trauma, long term use of corticosteroid medication such as hydrocortisone/prednisone). It is also used to relieve bone pain due to bone loss (osteoporosis).
russellward Email
2023-2-27 16:54
buy winstrol online is used to treat hereditary angioedema, which causes episodes of swelling of the face, limbs, genitals, intestinal wall, and throat. it can reduce the frequency and severity of these attacks.anavar buy is unique in that it has high oral bioavailability (can be taken orally) and is resistant to hepatic metabolism.winstrol for sale online is a high-quality steroid developed by the pharmaceutical company Maxtrix biolabs. The main component of the product is Stanozolol, a well-known anabolic steroid with a very low level of androgenic activity.
james
2023-2-27 23:05
Dino Game is a popular online game that has captivated the attention of millions of users. In this article, we will explore the various features of the game and provide helpful tips and tricks for players who are looking to improve their scores.Dino Game | Incestflix | Pikashow Apk -- Free Download
asdsa Email
2023-2-28 13:47
https://coinbaseprologinn.web.app/ Coinbase Pro is a secure online platform for buying, selling, transferring, and storing cryptocurrency, https://coinbase-apps.web.app/ Coinbase App is the world's most trusted cryptocurrency exchange to securely buy, sell, trade, store, and stake crypto.
ada Email
2023-2-28 13:48
Coinbase Pro is a secure online platform for buying, selling, transferring, and storing cryptocurrency. Coinbase App is the world's most trusted cryptocurrency exchange to securely buy, sell, trade, store, and stake crypto
ada Email
2023-2-28 13:48
Coinbase Pro is a secure online platform for buying, selling, transferring, and storing cryptocurrency. Coinbase App is the world's most trusted cryptocurrency exchange to securely buy, sell, trade, store, and stake crypto
miks
2023-2-28 19:15
Thanks for sharing such important information which is very useful .I really appreciate your way of work.https://escortsserviceindehradun.com/https://bestcallgirlindehradun.com/https://availableoncall.com/https://availableonc...
dada Homepage
2023-3-2 18:56
https://app.ahrefs.com/<a href="https://app.ahrefs.com/">ahrefs terbaru</a>  [url=https://app.ahrefs.com/ahrefs terbaru[/url]
dada Email Homepage
2023-3-2 18:57
https://idnlive.net/https://slotserverhongkong.net/https://judispin.art/https://judicapsaonline.com/https://pgsoftslotonline.com/https://dewadomino.net/https://idnslot.me/https://idnlive.net/https://slotserverhongkong.net/
JACKMAA Email
2023-3-3 13:46
mail.aol.com In this write-up, we are going to study the method of integrating your Gmail account with your Aol Mail Sign in account. So, if you also have both accounts and seeking a way to add both of them
maira Email
2023-3-3 17:04
I haven’t any word to appreciate this post.....Really i am impressed from this post....the person who create this post it was a great human..thanks for shared this with us.  moles pictures
Ahmad$221207 Email Homepage
2023-3-4 18:31
It is common to examine the back of the present card to determine the date it expires. The date will be displayed the gift card will not be used anymore. If you are unable to find this information, contact the customer support number printed on the back of the gift card to inquire.https://sites.google.com/view/homedepotgiftcardbalances/ |https://sites.google.com/view/macysgiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/egiftcard.website/targetcomcheckbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/targetgiftcardbalancee/contact-us |https://sites.google.com/paypalloginus.com/paypal-login/ | https://sites.google.com/view/url-amazon-couk-mytv/ |https://sites.google.com/ledgercomstarts.com/ledgercomstarts/ |https://sites.google.com/view/venmol0gin/ |https://sites.google.com/view/walmartgiftcardbalancecheckk/ |https://sites.google.com/view/url-amazon-com-redeem/ |https://sites.google.com/view/vanillagiftcardbalancee/ |https://sites.google.com/vanillaegiftcardbalance.com/vanillagiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/vanillaegiftcardbalance.com/vanillaegiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/vanillaegiftcardbalance.com/vanillagiftcardbalancecheck/ |https://sites.google.com/vanillaegiftcardbalance.com/vanillagiftcardbalances/ |https://amazoncomcode.onepage.website/ |https://sites.google.com/ledgercomstarts.com/ledgercomstart/ |https://sites.google.com/view/dunkindonutsgiftcardbalances/ |https://sites.google.com/view/amazoncomredeemgift/ |https://sites.google.com/view/url-amazoncom-mytv/ |https://sites.google.com/view/amazon-redeem-canada/ |https://sites.google.com/view/amazoncomredeemuk/ |https://sites.google.com/mytargetgiftcardbalance.com/targetcomcheckbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/mytargetgiftcardbalance.com/targetgiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/sephoragiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/targetgiftcardbalancee/target-gift-card-balance |https://sites.google.com/view/targetcomcheckbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/gifrcard-balance.com/ebaygiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/targetredcardslogin.com/targetredcardlogin/ |https://sites.google.com/view/itunes-gift-card-balance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/ebay-gift-card-balance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/fandangogiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/gifrcard-balance.com/bestbuygiftcardbalance/ |https://sites.google.com/view/nikegiftcardbalance/ |
Muhammad Email Homepage
2023-3-5 16:20
I'm the owner of this website. I'll provide the service of all types of crack software for PC. You can also download it. I read this article! I hope you will continue to have such articles to share with everyone! thank you! You can Visit my website <a href="https://serialcrack.org/">serialcrack.org Crack</a><a href="https://serialcrack.org/dropbox-crack/">Dropbox Crack</a><a href="https://serialcrack.org/avocode-crack/">Avocode crack</a><a href="https://serialcrack.org/proshow-producer-crack/">Proshow Producer Crack</a><a href=" https://serialcrack.org/robotask-crack/ ">RoboTask crack</a><a href="https://serialcrack.org/coreldraw-graphics-suite-crack/">CorelDRAW Graphics Suite Crack</a><a href=" https://serialcrack.org/xilisoft-youtube…-converter-crack/">Xillisoft YouTube Vedio Converter Crack</a>
maira Email
2023-3-5 17:02
Really I enjoy your site with effective and useful information. It is included very nice post with a lot of our resources.thanks for share. i enjoy this post.  dash
maria
2023-3-6 16:35
Cash App login is the easy way to send, spend, save, and invest your money. HERE'S HOW IT WORKS Download and sign up for Cash App in a matter of minutes. Venmo Login Venmo is a digital wallet that makes money easier for everyone from students to small businesses.
Hibbah Email
2023-3-8 19:04
The minor chord scale is a collection of chords that are built from a particular minor scale, for example, an Am chord scale would include chords built from the notes of the Am scale. Here are Minor Chord Scale from all key  Minor Chord Scale
maira Email
2023-3-8 20:07
Took me time to read all the comments, but I really enjoyed the article. It proved to be Very helpful to me and I am sure to all the commenters here! It’s always nice when you can not only be informed, but also entertained!  Klimt Cairnhill
Sophia Johnson Email Homepage
2023-3-9 16:45
You should also avoid consuming alcohol when taking Cenforce 150 red pill, as it can reduce its effectiveness. It’s also a good idea to avoid eating large or fatty meals right before you plan to take them.If you have a medical condition, such as diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure, talk to your doctor before using this medicine. These conditions can worsen your ED and increase your risk of side effects.Also Visit: cenforce 120 review
分页: 371/426 第一页 上页 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]