[文章作者:张宴 本文版本:v1.2 最后修改:2008.01.02 转载请注明出处:http://blog.zyan.cc]

  我曾经写过一篇文章──《初步试用Squid的替代产品──Varnish Cache网站加速器》,但当时仅仅是用着玩,没做深入研究。

  今天写的这篇关于Varnish的文章,已经是一篇可以完全替代Squid做网站缓存加速器的详细解决方案了。网上关于Varnish的资料很少,中文资料更是微乎其微,希望本文能够吸引更多的人研究、使用Varnish。

  在我看来,使用Varnish代替Squid的理由有三点:
  1、Varnish采用了“Visual Page Cache”技术,在内存的利用上,Varnish比Squid具有优势,它避免了Squid频繁在内存、磁盘中交换文件,性能要比Squid高。
  2、Varnish的稳定性还不错,我管理的一台图片服务器运行Varnish已经有一个月,没有发生过故障,而进行相同工作的Squid服务器就倒过几次。
  3、通过Varnish管理端口,可以使用正则表达式快速、批量地清除部分缓存,这一点是Squid不能具备的。

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片


  下面来安装Varnish网站缓存加速器(Linux系统):
  1、创建www用户和组,以及Varnish缓存文件存放目录(/var/vcache):
/usr/sbin/groupadd www -g 48
/usr/sbin/useradd -u 48 -g www www
mkdir -p /var/vcache
chmod +w /var/vcache
chown -R www:www /var/vcache


  2、创建Varnish日志目录(/var/logs/):
mkdir -p /var/logs
chmod +w /var/logs
chown -R www:www /var/logs


  3、编译安装varnish:
wget http://blog.zyan.cc/soft/linux/varnish/varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
tar zxvf varnish-1.1.2.tar.gz
cd varnish-1.1.2
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/varnish
make && make install


  4、创建Varnish配置文件:
vi /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf

  输入以下内容:
引用
backend myblogserver {
       set backend.host = "192.168.0.5";
       set backend.port = "80";
}

acl purge {
       "localhost";
       "127.0.0.1";
       "192.168.1.0"/24;
}

sub vcl_recv {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               if (!client.ip ~ purge) {
                       error 405 "Not allowed.";
               }
               lookup;
       }

       if (req.http.host ~ "^blog.zyan.cc") {
               set req.backend = myblogserver;
               if (req.request != "GET" && req.request != "HEAD") {
                       pipe;
               }
               else {
                       lookup;
               }
       }
       else {
               error 404 "Zhang Yan Cache Server";
               lookup;
       }
}

sub vcl_hit {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               set obj.ttl = 0s;
               error 200 "Purged.";
       }
}

sub vcl_miss {
       if (req.request == "PURGE") {
               error 404 "Not in cache.";
       }
}

sub vcl_fetch {
       if (req.request == "GET" && req.url ~ "\.(txt|js)$") {
               set obj.ttl = 3600s;
       }
       else {
               set obj.ttl = 30d;
       }
}

  这里,我对这段配置文件解释一下:
  (1)、Varnish通过反向代理请求后端IP为192.168.0.5,端口为80的web服务器;
  (2)、Varnish允许localhost、127.0.0.1、192.168.0.***三个来源IP通过PURGE方法清除缓存;
  (3)、Varnish对域名为blog.zyan.cc的请求进行处理,非blog.zyan.cc域名的请求则返回“Zhang Yan Cache Server”;
  (4)、Varnish对HTTP协议中的GET、HEAD请求进行缓存,对POST请求透过,让其直接访问后端Web服务器。之所以这样配置,是因为POST请求一般是发送数据给服务器的,需要服务器接收、处理,所以不缓存;
  (5)、Varnish对以.txt和.js结尾的URL缓存时间设置1小时,对其他的URL缓存时间设置为30天。

  5、启动Varnish
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on


  6、启动varnishncsa用来将Varnish访问日志写入日志文件:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/varnish.log &


  7、配置开机自动启动Varnish
vi /etc/rc.local

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
ulimit -SHn 51200
/usr/local/varnish/sbin/varnishd -n /var/vcache -f /usr/local/varnish/vcl.conf -a 0.0.0.0:80 -s file,/var/vcache/varnish_cache.data,1G -g www -u www -w 30000,51200,10 -T 127.0.0.1:3500 -p client_http11=on
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &


  8、优化Linux内核参数
vi /etc/sysctl.conf

  在末尾增加以下内容:
引用
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 300
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 5000    65000



  再看看如何管理Varnish:
  1、查看Varnish服务器连接数与命中率:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishstat

  点击在新窗口中浏览此图片

  2、通过Varnish管理端口进行管理:
  用help看看可以使用哪些Varnish命令:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 help

引用
Available commands:
ping [timestamp]
status
start
stop
stats
vcl.load
vcl.inline
vcl.use
vcl.discard
vcl.list
vcl.show
param.show [-l] []
param.set
help [command]
url.purge
dump.pool


  3、通过Varnish管理端口,使用正则表达式批量清除缓存:
  (1)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/a/zhangyan.html的URL地址):
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge /a/

  (2)、例:清除类似http://blog.zyan.cc/tech的URL地址:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge w*$

  (3)、例:清除所有缓存:
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishadm -T 127.0.0.1:3500 url.purge *$


  4、一个清除Squid缓存的PHP函数(清除Varnish缓存同样可以使用该函数,无需作任何修改,十分方便):


  附1:Varnish官方网站:http://www.varnish-cache.org/

  附2:2007年12月10日,我写了一个每天0点运行,按天切割Varnish日志,生成一个压缩文件,同时删除上个月旧日志的脚本(/var/logs/cutlog.sh):
  /var/logs/cutlog.sh文件内容如下:
引用
#!/bin/sh
# This file run at 00:00
date=$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y-%m-%d")
pkill -9 varnishncsa
mv /var/logs/youvideo.log /var/logs/${date}.log
/usr/local/varnish/bin/varnishncsa -n /var/vcache -w /var/logs/youvideo.log &
mkdir -p /var/logs/youvideo/
gzip -c /var/logs/${date}.log > /var/logs/youvideo/${date}.log.gz
rm -f /var/logs/${date}.log
rm -f /var/logs/youvideo/$(date -d "-1 month" +"%Y-%m*").log.gz

  设置在每天00:00定时执行:
  
/usr/bin/crontab -e
  或者  
vi /var/spool/cron/root
  输入以下内容:
引用
0 0 * * * /bin/sh /var/logs/cutlog.sh



Tags: , , ,



技术大类 » Cache与存储 | 评论(8574) | 引用(0) | 阅读(773774)
rosse Email
2023-4-17 20:44
rosse Email
2023-4-17 20:45
Celebrities Outfits Email Homepage
2023-4-19 05:29
We were looking for a post that would be instructive, and yours is excellent. Much obliged to you for giving it. Star Trek Picard Season 3 Leather Jacket
Sankii Homepage
2023-4-19 18:14
MetaMask login is one of the most well-known cryptocurrency wallets accessible on the market. Access to blockchain apps is also made available by MetaMask, a wallet. It makes maintaining a link to blockchains incredibly easy for web apps.Metamask Extension |Metamask Login With password
Sankii Email Homepage
2023-4-19 18:15
MetaMask login is one of the most well-known cryptocurrency wallets accessible on the market. Access to blockchain apps is also made available by MetaMask, a wallet. It makes maintaining a link to blockchains incredibly easy for web apps.Metamask Extension |Metamask Login With password
viprtips Email Homepage
2023-4-19 20:43
Thanks for this valuable information!https://viprtips.shop/<a href="https://viprtips.shop/">viprtips</a>
viprdocs Email Homepage
2023-4-19 20:43
Thanks for this valuable information!https://viprdocs.shop/<a href="https://viprdocs.shop/">viprdocs</a>
ADADA Email Homepage
2023-4-20 15:40
ADADADA
ADADA Email Homepage
2023-4-20 15:40
https://www.youtube.com/
Digital Marketing Agency Email Homepage
2023-4-20 18:49
Start Getting Quality Leads, Sales & Calls With Our Proven Digital Marketing Strategy. Drive in better sales & improved ROI with Best digital marketing agency in Delhi NCR.https://www.imperioninfomedia.com/digital-marketing-company/
SEO services Email Homepage
2023-4-20 18:51
Our SEO services can help you get to the top of Google and drive more traffic to your web. Looking for the best SEO agency? Contact us for one stop solution for digital marketing.https://www.imperioninfomedia.com/seo-services/
Question and Answer Websites Email Homepage
2023-4-20 18:53
A Question and Answer Websites is one where the website's authors all use images of pop culture figures to respond to comments from the website's audience, most likely in the form of questions and answers.+https://godsofseo.com/dofollow-question-and-answer-sites-list/
sex furniture Email Homepage
2023-4-21 10:23
Sex furniture has become increasingly popular in recent years, and for good reason. Sex furniture is designed to help couples explore new positions and experiences, making sex more exhilarating and enjoyable. Sex furniture can also help couples remain comfortable during sex, as well as explore deeper levels of intimacy and pleasure. Here are some of the benefits of sex furniture.https://www.sexfurniturehub.com/
roowri Email
2023-4-21 10:25
Sex furniture has become increasingly popular in recent years, and for good reason. Sex furniture is designed to help couples explore new positions and experiences, making sex more exhilarating and enjoyable. Sex furniture can also help couples remain comfortable during sex, as well as explore deeper levels of intimacy and pleasure. Here are some of the benefits of sex furniture.https://www.sexfurniturehub.com/
토토사이트 Email Homepage
2023-4-21 16:13
I have a lot of trouble. I wish someone like you was by my side. Then you can get a lot of advice. your post I am very happy to know you through Your posts helped me a lot. This is a great and very interesting blog. 토토사이트
hjdka Email Homepage
2023-4-21 21:16
https://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.comhttps://solflare.us.com
jasan Email
2023-4-24 14:21
Cryptocurrencies brought with them crypto exchanges, Coinbase Wallet network interactions, high-priced digital assets, app and extension-based services, and much more.Phantom Wallet is a secure self-custodial wallet that is encrypted using private keys on your device.
Snus kaufen Email Homepage
2023-4-24 15:38
Very exciting. Do you know Killa Snus bestellen?Killa Snus bestellen
Free Plenty of Fish Email Homepage
2023-4-24 19:04
分页: 377/429 第一页 上页 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 下页 最后页
发表评论
表情
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
emotemotemotemotemot
打开HTML
打开UBB
打开表情
隐藏
记住我
昵称   密码   游客无需密码
网址   电邮   [注册]